Ibn Al-Qayyim on the Prophet’s guidance in Ablution, Al-Wudu

December 12, 2013

Zaad Al-Ma'ad Ibn Al-Qayyim

By Abu Amina Elias for FaithinAllah.org

In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful

Ibn Al-Qayyim writes in his book Zaad Al-Ma’ad:

The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, would perform ablution for every prayer most of the time, although sometimes he would pray with one previous ablution. Sometimes he would perform ablution with a small portion of water, a little less or sometimes more. He was the most frugal of the people in pouring water for ablution and he warned his people against wasting it.

It has been authentically reported from him that he performed ablution by washing each limb once, twice, or three times. Sometimes he would wash his limbs twice and others three times. He would rinse his mouth and sniff water into his nose, sometimes with a handful of water and others times with two or three. He would combine rinsing his mouth and sniffing water into his nose at the same time, and he would sniff water with his right hand while expelling it with his left hand.

Sometimes he would wipe over the whole of his head and sometimes he would pass his hands back and forth, but it has not been authentically reported from him that he ever wiped over only a part of his head. If he wiped over his forehead, he would complete it by wiping over his turban.

He never performed ablution without rinsing his mouth and sniffing water into his nose and it has not been reported from him that he ever once abandoned it. Similarly, he never once abandoned the sequence and continuity of actions in ablution.

He would wash his feet if they were not in leather socks or ordinary socks, and he would wipe over his ears both inside and outside along with his head.

Every narration that is reported about the supplications for ablution are false except for beginning with the name of Allah and the words:

أَشْهَدُ أَنْ لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا اللَّهُ وَحْدَهُ لَا شَرِيكَ لَهُ وَأَشْهَدُ أَنَّ مُحَمَّدًا عَبْدُهُ وَرَسُولُهُ اللَّهُمَّ اجْعَلْنِي مِنْ التَّوَّابِينَ وَاجْعَلْنِي مِنْ الْمُتَطَهِّرِينَ

I bear witness there is no god but Allah alone without any partners, and I bear witness Muhammad is his servant and his Messenger. O Allah, make me among those who repent and make me among those who purify themselves.

Source: Sunan At-Tirmidhi 55, Grade: Sahih

And there is another narration from An-Nasa’i:

سُبْحَانَكَ اللَّهُمَّ وَبِحَمْدِكَ أَشْهَدُ أَنْ لا إِلَهَ إِلا أَنْتَ أَسْتَغْفِرُكَ وَأَتُوبُ إِلَيْكَ

Glory to you, O Allah. I bear witness there is no god but you, I seek your forgiveness and I repent to you.

Source: Sunan Al-Kubra An-Nasa’i 9516, Grade: Sahih

The Prophet never said at the beginning of ablution, “I have the intention,” and neither did the companions. He never repeated washing his limbs more than three times. Similarly, it has not been authentically reported from him that he washed above the elbows and ankles, nor was it his habit to dry his limbs.

He would run his fingers through his beard sometimes, but it was not his regular practice. He would wash between his fingers and toes, but he did not always do so. As for moving the ring, there is a weak narration regarding it.

It has been authentically reported from him that when he was at home and traveling he would wipe over his socks. The time for the resident is one day and night, and the time for the traveler is three days and nights. He would wipe over the tops of his leather socks and his ordinary socks and he wiped over his forehead and turban, being satisfied with that. It is possible that this was only in special circumstances and it is also possible that it is a general rule, this being more likely. Allah knows best.

He would perform dry ablution (tayammum) by striking the ground upon which he intended to pray, once for his hands and face, whether it was dust, soil, or sand. It has been authentically reported that the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, said:

فَأَيْنَمَا أَدْرَكَتْ رَجُلًا مِنْ أُمَّتِي الصَّلَاةُ فَعِنْدَهُ مَسْجِدُهُ وَعِنْدَهُ طَهُورُهُ

Wherever a man from my nation may be at the time of prayer, then with him is his mosque and his purification.

Source: Musnad Ahmad 21632, Grade: Sahih

When he traveled with his companions during the Tabuk expedition, they crossed the sands and their water became scarce. It was not reported that he carried dust with him, nor did he command it and neither did his companions. If anyone reflects upon this, and Allah knows best, he must conclude that he performed dry ablution with sand. This is the opinion of the majority of scholars.

It has not been reported that he renewed his dry ablution for every prayer, nor that he commanded it. Indeed, he declared it to be general and affirmed that it took the place of regular ablution.

كَانَ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ يَتَوَضَّأُ لِكُلِّ صَلَاةٍ فِي غَالِبِ أَحْيَانِهِ وَرُبَّمَا صَلَّى الصَّلَوَاتِ بِوُضُوءٍ وَاحِدٍ وَكَانَ يَتَوَضَّأُ بِالْمُدِّ تَارَةً وَبِثُلُثَيْهِ تَارَةً وَبِأَزْيَدَ مِنْهُ تَارَةً وَذَلِكَ نَحْوُ أَرْبَعِ أَوَاقٍ بِالدِّمَشْقِيِّ إِلَى أُوقِيَّتَيْنِ وَثَلَاثٍ وَكَانَ مِنْ أَيْسَرِ النَّاسِ صَبًّا لِمَاءِ الْوُضُوءِ وَكَانَ يُحَذِّرُ أُمَّتَهُ مِنَ الْإِسْرَافِ فِيهِ

وَصَحَّ عَنْهُ أَنَّهُ تَوَضَّأَ مَرَّةً مَرَّةً وَمَرَّتَيْنِ مَرَّتَيْنِ وَثَلَاثًا ثَلَاثًا وَفِي بَعْضِ الْأَعْضَاءِ مَرَّتَيْنِ وَبَعْضِهَا ثَلَاثًا

وَكَانَ يَتَمَضْمَضُ وَيَسْتَنْشِقُ تَارَةً بِغَرْفَةٍ وَتَارَةً بِغَرْفَتَيْنِ وَتَارَةً بِثَلَاثٍ وَكَانَ يَصِلُ بَيْنَ الْمَضْمَضَةِ وَالِاسْتِنْشَاقِ فَيَأْخُذُ نِصْفَ الْغَرْفَةِ لِفَمِهِ وَنِصْفَهَا لِأَنْفِهِ

وَكَانَ يَسْتَنْشِقُ بِيَدِهِ الْيُمْنَى وَيَسْتَنْثِرُ بِالْيُسْرَى وَكَانَ يَمْسَحُ رَأْسَهُ كُلَّهُ في الوضوء وَتَارَةً يُقْبِلُ بِيَدَيْهِ وَيُدْبِرُ

وَالصَّحِيحُ أَنَّهُ لَمْ يُكَرِّرْ مَسْحَ رَأْسِهِ بَلْ كَانَ إِذَا كَرَّرَ غَسْلَ الْأَعْضَاءِ أَفْرَدَ مَسْحَ الرَّأْسِ هَكَذَا جَاءَ عَنْهُ صَرِيحًا وَلَمْ يَصِحَّ عَنْهُ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ خِلَافُهُ الْبَتَّةَ

وَلَمْ يَتَوَضَّأْ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ إِلَّا تَمَضْمَضَ وَاسْتَنْشَقَ وَلَمْ يُحْفَظْ عَنْهُ أَنَّهُ أَخَلَّ بِهِ مَرَّةً وَاحِدَةً وَكَذَلِكَ كَانَ وُضُوءُهُ مُرَتَّبًا مُتَوَالِيًا لَمْ يُخِلَّ بِهِ مَرَّةً وَاحِدَةً الْبَتَّةَ

وَكَانَ يَغْسِلُ رِجْلَيْهِ إِذَا لَمْ يَكُونَا فِي خُفَّيْنِ وَلَا جَوْرَبَيْنِ وَيَمْسَحُ عَلَيْهِمَا إِذَا كَانَا فِي الْخُفَّيْنِ أَوِ الْجَوْرَبَيْنِ

وَكَانَ يَمْسَحُ أُذُنَيْهِ مَعَ رَأْسِهِ وَكَانَ يَمْسَحُ ظَاهِرَهُمَا وَبَاطِنَهُمَا وَلَمْ يَثْبُتْ عَنْهُ أَنَّهُ أَخَذَ لَهُمَا مَاءً جَدِيدًا

وَلَمْ يُحْفَظْ عَنْهُ أَنَّهُ كَانَ يَقُولُ عَلَى وُضُوئِهِ شَيْئًا غَيْرَ التَّسْمِيَةِ وَكُلُّ حَدِيثٍ فِي أَذْكَارِ الْوُضُوءِ الَّذِي يُقَالُ عَلَيْهِ فَكَذِبٌ مُخْتَلَقٌ لَمْ يَقُلْ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ شَيْئًا مِنْهُ وَلَا عَلَّمَهُ لِأُمَّتِهِ وَلَا ثَبَتَ عَنْهُ غَيْرُ التَّسْمِيَةِ فِي أَوَّلِهِ وَقَوْلُهُ أَشْهَدُ أَنْ لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا اللَّهُ وَحْدَهُ لَا شَرِيكَ لَهُ وَأَشْهَدُ أَنَّ مُحَمَّدًا عَبْدُهُ وَرَسُولُهُ اللَّهُمَّ اجْعَلْنِي مِنَ التَّوَّابِينَ وَاجْعَلْنِي مِنَ الْمُتَطَهِّرِينَ فِي آخِرِهِ

وَفِي حَدِيثٍ آخَرَ فِي سُنَنِ النَّسَائِيِّ مِمَّا يُقَالُ بَعْدَ الْوُضُوءِ أَيْضًا سُبْحَانَكَ اللَّهُمَّ وَبِحَمْدِكَ أَشْهَدُ أَنْ لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا أَنْتَ أَسْتَغْفِرُكَ وَأَتُوبُ إِلَيْكَ

وَلَمْ يَكُنْ يَقُولُ فِي أَوَّلِهِ نَوَيْتُ رَفْعَ الْحَدَثِ وَلَا اسْتِبَاحَةَ الصَّلَاةِ لَا هُوَ وَلَا أَحَدٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِهِ الْبَتَّةَ وَلَمْ يُرْوَ عَنْهُ فِي ذَلِكَ حَرْفٌ وَاحِدٌ

وَكَذَلِكَ لَمْ يَثْبُتْ عَنْهُ أَنَّهُ تَجَاوَزَ الْمِرْفَقَيْنِ وَالْكَعْبَيْنِ

وَكَانَ يُخَلِّلُ لِحْيَتَهُ أَحْيَانًا وَلَمْ يَكُنْ يُوَاظِبُ عَلَى ذَلِكَ

وَكَذَلِكَ تَخْلِيلُ الْأَصَابِعِ لَمْ يَكُنْ يُحَافِظُ عَلَيْهِ

وَأَمَّا تَحْرِيكُ خَاتَمِهِ فَقَدْ رُوِيَ فِيهِ حَدِيثٌ ضَعِيفٌ

صَحَّ عَنْهُ أَنَّهُ مَسَحَ فِي الْحَضَرِ وَالسَّفَرِ وَلَمْ يُنْسَخْ ذَلِكَ حَتَّى تُوُفِّيَ وَوَقَّتَ لِلْمُقِيمِ يَوْمًا وَلَيْلَةً وَلِلْمُسَافِرِ ثَلَاثَةَ أَيَّامٍ وَلَيَالِيَهُنَّ

وَمَسَحَ عَلَى الْعِمَامَةِ مُقْتَصِرًا عَلَيْهَا وَمَعَ النَّاصِيَةِ وَثَبَتَ عَنْهُ ذَلِكَ فِعْلًا وَأَمْرًا فِي عِدَّةِ أَحَادِيثَ لَكِنْ فِي قَضَايَا أَعْيَانٍ يُحْتَمَلُ أَنْ تَكُونَ خَاصَّةً بِحَالِ الْحَاجَةِ وَالضَّرُورَةِ وَيُحْتَمَلُ الْعُمُومُ كَالْخُفَّيْنِ وَهُوَ أَظْهَرُ وَاللَّهُ أَعْلَمُ

وَكَذَلِكَ كَانَ يَتَيَمَّمُ بِالْأَرْضِ الَّتِي يُصَلِّي عَلَيْهَا تُرَابًا كَانَتْ أَوْ سَبْخَةً أَوْ رَمْلًا وَصَحَّ عَنْهُ أَنَّهُ قَالَ حَيْثُمَا أَدْرَكَتْ رَجُلًا مِنْ أُمَّتِي الصَّلَاةُ فَعِنْدَهُ مَسْجِدُهُ وَطَهُورُهُ

وَلَمَّا سَافَرَ هُوَ وَأَصْحَابُهُ فِي غَزْوَةِ تَبُوكَ قَطَعُوا تِلْكَ الرِّمَالِ فِي طَرِيقِهِمْ وَمَاؤُهُمْ فِي غَايَةِ الْقِلَّةِ وَلَمْ يُرْوَ عَنْهُ أَنَّهُ حَمَلَ مَعَهُ التُّرَابَ وَلَا أَمَرَ بِهِ وَلَا فَعَلَهُ أَحَدٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِهِ

وَمَنْ تَدَبَّرَ هَذَا قَطَعَ بِأَنَّهُ كَانَ يَتَيَمَّمُ بِالرَّمْلِ وَاللَّهُ أَعْلَمُ وَهَذَا قَوْلُ الْجُمْهُورِ

وَكَذَلِكَ لَمْ يَصِحَّ عَنْهُ التَّيَمُّمُ لِكُلِّ صَلَاةٍ وَلَا أَمَرَ بِهِ بَلْ أَطْلَقَ التَّيَمُّمَ وَجَعَلَهُ قَائِمًا مَقَامَ الْوُضُوءِ

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