Umar on Judgment: The Caliph judges in favor of the Jew

Sa’id ibn al-Musayyib reported: Umar ibn al-Khattab, may Allah be pleased with him, was presented with a dispute between a Muslim and a Jew. Umar believed that the truth was on the side of the Jew, so he passed judgment in his favor. The Jew said to him, “By Allah, you have judged with the truth!” Umar rapped him with his whip and he said, “How do you know it?” The Jew said, “Verily, we find written in the Torah that none judges with the truth but that there is an angel on his right and an angel on his left to keep him steady and guided in the truth. If he abandons the truth, then they will ascend and abandon him.”

Source: al-Muwaṭṭa’ 1425

Grade: Sahih (authentic) according to Al-Albani

Ibn Abdul Barr said, “In this tradition is the understanding that judgment between a Muslim, an unbeliever, and a protected citizen is equal to judgment between Muslims.”

Source: al-Istidhkār 31621

عَنْ سَعِيدِ بْنِ الْمُسَيَّبِ أَنَّ عُمَرَ بْنَ الْخَطَّابِ رضي الله عنه اخْتَصَمَ إِلَيْهِ مُسْلِمٌ وَيَهُودِيٌّ فَرَأَى عُمَرُ أَنَّ الْحَقَّ لِلْيَهُودِيِّ فَقَضَى لَهُ فَقَالَ لَهُ الْيَهُودِيُّ وَاللَّهِ لَقَدْ قَضَيْتَ بِالْحَقِّ فَضَرَبَهُ عُمَرُ بْنُ الْخَطَّابِ بِالدِّرَّةِ ثُمَّ قَالَ وَمَا يُدْرِيكَ فَقَالَ لَهُ الْيَهُودِيُّ وَاَللَّهِ إنَّا نَجِدُ فِي التَّوْرَاةِ لَيْسَ قَاضٍ يَقْضِي بِالْحَقِّ إِلَّا كَانَ عَنْ يَمِينِهِ مَلَكٌ وَعَنْ شِمَالِهِ مَلَكٌ يُسَدِّدَانِهِ وَيُوَفِّقَانِهِ لِلْحَقِّ مَا دَامَ مَعَ الْحَقِّ فَإِذَا تَرَكَ الْحَقَّ عَرَجَا وَتَرَكَاهُ

1425 موطأ مالك كتاب الأقضية باب الترغيب في القضاء بالحق

2197 المحدث الألباني خلاصة حكم المحدث صحيح موقوف في صحيح الترغيب

قال ابن عبد البر وَفِي هَذَا الْحَدِيثِ مِنَ الْفِقْهِ أَنَّ الْمُسْلِمَ وَالْكَافِرَ وَالذِّمِّيَّ فِي الْحُكْمِ بَيْنَهُمَا وَالْفَصْلِ بَيْنَ الْمُسْلِمِينَ سَوَاءٌ

31621 كتاب الاستذكار كتاب الأقضية