Al-Mundhiri on giving voluntary charity

In the name of Allah, the Gracious, the Merciful

Al-Mundhiri recorded the following chapter in his book Al-Targhib wal-Tarhib:

الترغيب في الصدقة والحث عليها

Encouragement to give charity and hastening to it.

Source: al-Targhīb wal-Tarhīb 2/3

Abu Huraira reported: The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, said:

مَا تَصَدَّقَ أَحَدٌ بِصَدَقَةٍ مِنْ طَيِّبٍ وَلَا يَقْبَلُ اللَّهُ إِلَّا الطَّيِّبَ إِلَّا أَخَذَهَا الرَّحْمَنُ بِيَمِينِهِ وَإِنْ كَانَتْ تَمْرَةً فَتَرْبُو فِي كَفِّ الرَّحْمَنِ حَتَّى تَكُونَ أَعْظَمَ مِنْ الْجَبَلِ كَمَا يُرَبِّي أَحَدُكُمْ فَلُوَّهُ أَوْ فَصِيلَهُ

None gives charity from what is good, for Allah only accepts what is good, except that the Merciful takes it with his right hand. Even if it is a date, it is nurtured in the hand of the Merciful until it becomes greater than a mountain, just as one of you nurtures his young horse or camel.

Source: Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim 1014, Grade: Sahih

Aisha reported: The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, said:

إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَيُرَبِّي لِأَحَدِكُمُ التَّمْرَةَ وَاللُّقْمَةَ كَمَا يُرَبِّي أَحَدُكُمْ فَلُوَّهُ أَوْ فَصِيلَهُ حَتَّى يَكُونَ مِثْلَ أُحُدٍ

Verily, Allah will raise up a date or a morsel in charity, just as one of you raises his mare or his young, until it becomes like the mountain of Uhud.

Source: Ṣaḥīḥ Ibn Ḥibbān 3317, Grade: Sahih

Abu Huraira reported: The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, said:

مَا نَقَصَتْ صَدَقَةٌ مِنْ مَالٍ وَمَا زَادَ اللَّهُ عَبْدًا بِعَفْوٍ إِلاَّ عِزًّا وَمَا تَوَاضَعَ أَحَدٌ لِلَّهِ إِلاَّ رَفَعَهُ اللَّهُ

Charity does not decrease wealth, no one forgives another but that Allah increases his honor, and no one humbles himself for the sake of Allah but that Allah raises his status.

Source: Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim 2588, Grade: Sahih

Aisha reported: They slaughtered a sheep and gave in charity from it. The Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, said:

مَا بَقِيَ مِنْهَا

What remains of it?

Aisha said, “Nothing remains but its shoulder.” The Prophet said:

بَقِيَ كُلُّهَا غَيْرَ كَتِفِهَا

All of it endures but its shoulder.

Source: Sunan al-Tirmidhī 2470, Grade: Sahih

Abu Huraira reported: The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, said:

يَقُولُ الْعَبْدُ مَالِي مَالِي إِنَّمَا لَهُ مِنْ مَالِهِ ثَلَاثٌ مَا أَكَلَ فَأَفْنَى أَوْ لَبِسَ فَأَبْلَى أَوْ أَعْطَى فَاقْتَنَى وَمَا سِوَى ذَلِكَ فَهُوَ ذَاهِبٌ وَتَارِكُهُ لِلنَّاسِ

The servant says: My wealth, my wealth! Verily, he only gets three from his wealth: he eats and it perishes, or he wears clothes and they degrade, or he gives in charity and it is stored for him. Whatever is beyond this will depart him and be left behind for people.

Source: Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim 2959, Grade: Sahih

Ibn Mas’ud reported: The Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, said:

أَيُّكُمْ مَالُ وَارِثِهِ أَحَبُّ إِلَيْهِ مِنْ مَالِهِ

Which of you loves the wealth of his heirs more than his own wealth?

They said, “O Messenger of Allah, there are none of us but his own wealth is more beloved to him.” The Prophet said:

فَإِنَّ مَالَهُ مَا قَدَّمَ وَمَالُ وَارِثِهِ مَا أَخَّرَ

Verily, his true wealth is what he puts forward and the wealth of his heirs is what is left behind.

Source: Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī 6077, Grade: Sahih

‘Adi ibn Hatim reported: The Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, said:

اتَّقُوا النَّارَ وَلَوْ بِشِقِّ تَمْرَةٍ فَمَنْ لَمْ يَجِدْ فَبِكَلِمَةٍ طَيِّبَةٍ

Guard yourself from the Hellfire, even with half of a date in charity. If one cannot find it, then with a kind word.

Source: Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī 6195, Grade: Muttafaqun Alayhi

Abdullah ibn Mas’ud reported: The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, said:

لِيَتَّقِ أَحَدُكُمْ وَجْهَهُ النَّارَ وَلَوْ بِشِقِّ تَمْرَةٍ

Let one of you protect his face from the Hellfire, even with half of a date in charity.

Source: Musnad Aḥmad 3679, Grade: Sahih

Aisha reported: The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, said to her:

يَا عَائِشَةُ اسْتَتِرِي مِنَ النَّارِ وَلَوْ بِشِقِّ تَمْرَةٍ فَإِنَّهَا تَسُدُّ مِنَ الْجَائِعِ مَسَدَّهَا مِنَ الشَّبْعَانِ

O Aisha, set up a barrier from the Hellfire, even with half of a date in charity, for it settles the hungry in place of the full.

Source: Musnad Aḥmad 24501, Grade: Hasan

Jabir ibn Abdullah reported: The Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, said:

يَا كَعْبُ بْنَ عُجْرَةَ الصَّلَاةُ قُرْبَانٌ وَالصَّوْمُ جُنَّةٌ وَالصَّدَقَةُ تُطْفِئُ الْخَطِيَّةَ كَمَا يُطْفِئُ الْمَاءُ النَّارَ

O Ka’b ibn ‘Urjah, prayer brings one closer to Allah, fasting is a shield, and charity extinguishes sins just as water extinguishes fire.

Source: Ṣaḥīḥ Ibn Ḥibbān 1723, Grade: Sahih

Mu’adh ibn Jabal reported: The Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, said:

أَلَا أَدُلُّكَ عَلَى أَبْوَابِ الْخَيْرِ الصَّوْمُ جُنَّةٌ وَالصَّدَقَةُ تُطْفِئُ الْخَطِيئَةَ كَمَا يُطْفِئُ الْمَاءُ النَّارَ وَصَلَاةُ الرَّجُلِ مِنْ جَوْفِ اللَّيْلِ

Shall I not tell you about the gates of goodness? Fasting is a shield, charity extinguishes sins as water extinguishes fire, and the prayer of a man in the late night.

And the Prophet recited the verse:

تَتَجَافَىٰ جُنُوبُهُمْ عَنِ الْمَضَاجِعِ يَدْعُونَ رَبَّهُمْ خَوْفًا وَطَمَعًا وَمِمَّا رَزَقْنَاهُمْ يُنفِقُونَ فَلَا تَعْلَمُ نَفْسٌ مَّا أُخْفِيَ لَهُم مِّن قُرَّةِ أَعْيُنٍ جَزَاءً بِمَا كَانُوا يَعْمَلُونَ

They arise from their beds and supplicate to their Lord in fear and hope. They spend from what We have provided them, for no soul knows what has been hidden for them of comfort as reward for what they used to do. (32:16)

Source: Sunan al-Tirmidhī 2616, Grade: Sahih

Abu Kabshah reported: The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, said:

ثَلَاثَةٌ أُقْسِمُ عَلَيْهِنَّ وَأُحَدِّثُكُمْ حَدِيثًا فَاحْفَظُوهُ مَا نَقَصَ مَالُ عَبْدٍ مِنْ صَدَقَةٍ وَلَا ظُلِمَ عَبْدٌ مَظْلَمَةً فَصَبَرَ عَلَيْهَا إِلَّا زَادَهُ اللَّهُ عِزًّا وَلَا فَتَحَ عَبْدٌ بَابَ مَسْأَلَةٍ إِلَّا فَتَحَ اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ بَابَ فَقْرٍ

I swear an oath by Allah on three qualities and I will you about them, so memorize them: the wealth of a servant is not decreased by charity, a servant is not wronged by oppression and he endures it patiently but that Allah increases him in honor, and no servant opens the door of begging but that Allah opens for him the door of poverty.

Source: Sunan al-Tirmidhī 2325, Grade: Sahih

Abu Huraira reported: The Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, said:

مَثَلُ الْبَخِيلِ وَالْمُنْفِقِ كَمَثَلِ رَجُلَيْنِ عَلَيْهِمَا جُبَّتَانِ مِنْ حَدِيدٍ مِنْ ثُدِيِّهِمَا إِلَى تَرَاقِيهِمَا فَأَمَّا الْمُنْفِقُ فَلَا يُنْفِقُ إِلَّا سَبَغَتْ أَوْ وَفَرَتْ عَلَى جِلْدِهِ حَتَّى تُخْفِيَ بَنَانَهُ وَتَعْفُوَ أَثَرَهُ وَأَمَّا الْبَخِيلُ فَلَا يُرِيدُ أَنْ يُنْفِقَ شَيْئًا إِلَّا لَزِقَتْ كُلُّ حَلْقَةٍ مَكَانَهَا فَهُوَ يُوَسِّعُهَا وَلَا تَتَّسِعُ

The parable of the miser and the spender is that of two men clad in armor from their chests to their collars. As for the spender, he does not spend but that it extends or broadens over his skin until it cover the tips of his hands and feet. As for the miser, he does not want to spend anything but that every ring contracts in its place; he tries to loosen it but it will not.

Source: Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī 1375, Grade: Muttafaqun Alayhi

Abu Huraira reported: The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, said:

رَجُلٌ لَأَتَصَدَّقَنَّ بِصَدَقَةٍ فَخَرَجَ بِصَدَقَتِهِ فَوَضَعَهَا فِي يَدِ سَارِقٍ فَأَصْبَحُوا يَتَحَدَّثُونَ تُصُدِّقَ عَلَى سَارِقٍ فَقَالَ اللَّهُمَّ لَكَ الْحَمْدُ لَأَتَصَدَّقَنَّ بِصَدَقَةٍ فَخَرَجَ بِصَدَقَتِهِ فَوَضَعَهَا فِي يَدَيْ زَانِيَةٍ فَأَصْبَحُوا يَتَحَدَّثُونَ تُصُدِّقَ اللَّيْلَةَ عَلَى زَانِيَةٍ فَقَالَ اللَّهُمَّ لَكَ الْحَمْدُ عَلَى زَانِيَةٍ لَأَتَصَدَّقَنَّ بِصَدَقَةٍ فَخَرَجَ بِصَدَقَتِهِ فَوَضَعَهَا فِي يَدَيْ غَنِيٍّ فَأَصْبَحُوا يَتَحَدَّثُونَ تُصُدِّقَ عَلَى غَنِيٍّ فَقَالَ اللَّهُمَّ لَكَ الْحَمْدُ عَلَى سَارِقٍ وَعَلَى زَانِيَةٍ وَعَلَى غَنِيٍّ فَأُتِيَ فَقِيلَ لَهُ أَمَّا صَدَقَتُكَ عَلَى سَارِقٍ فَلَعَلَّهُ أَنْ يَسْتَعِفَّ عَنْ سَرِقَتِهِ وَأَمَّا الزَّانِيَةُ فَلَعَلَّهَا أَنْ تَسْتَعِفَّ عَنْ زِنَاهَا وَأَمَّا الْغَنِيُّ فَلَعَلَّهُ يَعْتَبِرُ فَيُنْفِقُ مِمَّا أَعْطَاهُ اللَّهُ

A man intended to give charity, so he went out with his charity and placed it in the hands of a thief. In the morning, people were saying: Charity was given to a thief! The man said: O Allah, praise be to you! The man again intended to give charity, so he went out with his charity and placed it in the hands of an adulteress. In the morning, people were saying: Charity was given to an adulteress in the night! The man said: O Allah, praise be to you for the adulteress! The man again intended to give charity, so he went out with his charity and placed it in the hands of a wealthy person. In the morning, people were saying: Charity was given to a wealthy person! The man said: O Allah, praise be to you for the thief, the adulteress, and the wealthy person! Then, it came to him in a dream and it was said: As for your charity to the thief, perhaps it will cause him to give up stealing. As for the adulteress, perhaps it will cause her to give up adultery. As for the wealthy person, perhaps he will learn a lesson and spend in charity from what Allah has given him.

Source: Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī 1355, Grade: Muttafaqun Alayhi

‘Uqbah ibn ‘Amir reported: The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, said:

إِنَّ الصَّدَقَةَ لَتُطْفِئُ عَنْ أَهْلِهَا حَرَّ الْقُبُورِ وَإِنَّمَا يَسْتَظِلُّ الْمُؤْمِنُ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ فِي ظِلِّ صَدَقَتِهِ

Verily, charity will protect people from the heat in their graves. Verily, only the believer will be shaded on the Day of Resurrection in the shade of his charity.

Source: al-Mu’jam al-Kabīr 14223, Grade: Hasan

Marthad ibn Abdullah reported: The Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, said:

ظِلُّ الْمُؤْمِنِ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ صَدَقَتُهُ

The shade of the believer on the Day of Resurrection is his charity.

Source: Musnad Aḥmad 23490, Grade: Sahih

‘Awf ibn Malik reported: The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, came to us in the mosque and he had a staff in his hand. A man among us had hung a bundle of brittle dates, so the Prophet started striking that bundle with his staff and he said:

لَوْ شَاءَ رَبُّ هَذِهِ الصَّدَقَةِ تَصَدَّقَ بِأَطْيَبَ مِنْهَا إِنَّ رَبَّ هَذِهِ الصَّدَقَةِ يَأْكُلُ الْحَشَفَ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ

If he wished he could have given better charity than this. Verily, the one who gave this in charity will eat brittle dates on the Day of Resurrection.

Source: Sunan Abī Dāwūd 1608, Grade: Sahih li ghayrihi

Abu Huraira reported: The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, said:

مَنْ جَمَعَ مَالًا حَرَامًا ثُمَّ تَصَدَّقَ بِهِ لَمْ يَكُنْ لَهُ فِيهِ أَجْرٌ وَكَانَ إِصْرُهُ عَلَيْهِ

Whoever accumulates unlawful wealth and then gives it in charity, he will never be rewarded and the burden of sin will be upon him.

Source: Ṣaḥīḥ Ibn Ḥibbān 3367, Grade: Hasan

Abu Huraira reported: The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, said:

خَيْرُ الصَّدَقَةِ مَا كَانَ عَنْ ظَهْرِ غِنًى وَابْدَأْ بِمَنْ تَعُولُ

The best charity is what you give when you are independent. You should start by spending on your dependents.

Source: Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī 1360, Grade: Sahih

Abdullah ibn Umar reported: The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, said,

الْيَدُ الْعُلْيَا خَيْرٌ مِنْ الْيَدِ السُّفْلَى وَالْيَدُ الْعُلْيَا الْمُنْفِقَةُ وَالسُّفْلَى السَّائِلَةُ

The upper hand is better than the lower hand. The upper hand is one that gives and the lower hand is one that takes.

Source: Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī 1362, Grade: Muttafaqun Alayhi

Abu Huraira reported: He said, “O Messenger of Allah, which charity is best?” The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, said:

جُهْدُ الْمُقِلِّ وَابْدَأْ بِمَنْ تَعُولُ

One with little property to give. Begin with your dependents.

Source: Sunan Abī Dāwūd 1677, Grade: Sahih

Umm Bujayd reported: She said, “O Messenger of Allah, the poor come to my door and I cannot find anything to give them.” The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, said:

إِنْ لَمْ تَجِدِي شَيْئًا تُعْطِينَهُ إِيَّاهُ إِلَّا ظِلْفًا مُحْرَقًا فَادْفَعِيهِ إِلَيْهِ فِي يَدِهِ

If you can find nothing but a burnt trotter, hand it over to them.

Source: Sunan al-Tirmidhī 665, Grade: Sahih

Abu al-Zar’a reported: Abdullah ibn Mas’ud, may Allah be pleased with him, said:

أَنَّ رَاهِبًا عَبَدَ اللَّهَ فِي صَوْمَعَتِهِ سِتِّينَ سَنَةً , فَجَاءَتِ امْرَأَةٌ فَنَزَلَتْ إِلَى جَنْبِهِ فَنَزَلَ إِلَيْهَا فَوَاقَعَهَا سِتَّ لَيَالٍ ثُمَّ سَقَطَ فِي يَدِهِ فَهَرَبَ فَأَتَى مَسْجِدًا فَأَوَى إِلَيْهِ فَمَكَثَ ثَلَاثًا لَا يَطْعَمُ شَيْئًا فَأُتِيَ بِرَغِيفٍ فَكَسَرَ نِصْفَهُ فَأَعْطَى نِصْفَهُ رَجُلًا عَنْ يَمِينِهِ وَأَعْطَى آخَرَ عَنْ يَسَارِهِ فَبَعَثَ اللَّهُ إِلَيْهِ مَلَكَ الْمَوْتِ فَقَبَضَ رُوحَهُ فَوُضِعَ عَمَلُ السِّتِّينَ سَنَةً فِي كِفَّةٍ وَوُضِعَ السَّيِّئَةُ فِي كِفَّةٍ فَرَجَحَتِ السَّيِّئَةُ ثُمَّ جِيءَ بِالرَّغِيفِ فَرَجَحَ بِالسَّيِّئَةِ

A monk worshiped Allah in his hermitage for sixty years. Then, a woman came and laid down at his side, so he laid down with her and was intimate with her for six nights. He became regretful and he fled. He arrived at a mosque and sought refuge in it and remained inside for three days without eating anything. He was given a loaf of bread, so he broke it into two halves and gave half to the man on his right and half to the man on his left. Allah sent to him the angel of death to take hold of his soul. The angel placed his deeds of sixty years upon one side of the scale and he placed the six nights on the other side, yet the six nights outweighed it. Then, he placed the loaf of bread on the scale and it outweighed the six nights.

Source: Muṣannaf Ibn Abī Shaybah 33523, Grade: Sahih

Success comes from Allah, and Allah knows best.