Al-Ghayah wal-Taqrib fi al-Fiqh al-Shafi’i

Translated by Abu Amina Elias

In the name of Allah, the Gracious, the Merciful

The following is an abridged translation of Matn Abī Shujjā’, also known as al-Ghāyah wal-Taqrīb. It is a primer on Islamic jurisprudence (al-fiqh) according to the school of Imām al-Shāfi’ī, may Allah have mercy on him. The purpose of the text is to outline for students the primary rules and topics of jurisprudence. It has been abridged here to include only the main practices of sound and valid worship, the five pillars of Islam.

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مختصر الغاية والتقريب

The abridgment of al-Ghāyah wal-Taqrīb

بسم الله الرحمنِ الرحيم

In the name of Allah, the Gracious, the Merciful

الحمد الله رب العالمين وصلى الله على سيدنا محمد النبي وآله الطاهرين وصحابته أجمعين

All praise is due to Allah, Lord of the worlds, and blessings of Allah be upon our master, Prophet Muhammad, his pure family, and his companions altogether.

قال القاضي أبو شجاع أحمد بن الحسين بن أحمد الأصفهاني رحمة الله تعالى سألني بعض الأصدقاء حفظهم الله تعالى أن أعمل مختصرا في الفقه على مذهب الإمام الشافعي رحمة الله تعالى عليه ورضوانه في غاية الاختصار ونهاية الإيجاز ليقرب على المتعلم درسه ويسهل على المبتدئ حفظه وأن أكثر فيه من التقسيمات وحصر الخصال

The judge Abū Shujā’ Aḥmad ibn al-Ḥusayn ibn Aḥmad al-Iṣfahānī, may Allah Almighty have mercy on him, said: Some of my colleagues, may Allah Almighty preserve them, asked me to make an abridgment of the jurisprudence of Imām al-Shāfi’ī, may Allah Almighty have mercy on him and be pleased with him, with the purpose of concisely summarizing it in order to aid the teacher in his lessons and to facilitate the memorization of the student, and that I would include within it most legal categories and an inventory of practices.

فأجبته إلى ذلك طالبا للثواب راغبا إلى الله تعالى في التوفيق للصواب إنه على ما يشاء قدير وبعباده لطيف خبير

So I answered that request, hoping in Allah Almighty for guidance towards what is correct. Indeed, He has power over all things and He is subtly aware of His servants.


Purification الطهارة

المياه التي يجوز التطهير بها سبع مياه ماء السماء وماء البحر وماء النهر وماء البئر وماء العين وماء الثلج وماء البرد

Water which is permissible for ritual purification is of seven types: water from the sky, water from the sea, water from rivers, water from wells, water from springs, water from snow, and water from hail.

 ثم المياه على أربعة أقسام طاهر مطهر غير مكروه وهو الماء المطلق وطاهر مطهر مكروه وهو الماء المشمس وطاهر غير مطهر وهو الماء المستعمل والمتغير بما خالطه من الطاهرات وماء نجس وهو الذي حلت فيه نجاسة

Thereafter, water is of four categories: pure and suitable for purification, not disapproved for use, which is unaltered water; pure and suitable for purification, but disapproved for use, which is water stagnated in the sun; pure but not suitable for purification, which is water previously used or changed by clean substances mixed into it; and filthy water, in which filth has dissolved.

وجلود الميتة تطهر بالدباغ إلا جلد الكلب والخنزير وما تولد منهما أو من أحدهما وعظم الميتة وشعرها نجس إلا الآدمي

The hides of dead animals are purified by tanning, except for the skins of dogs, swine, and their offspring. The bones and hair of dead animals are filth, except for human beings.

ولا يجوز استعمال أواني الذهب والفضة ويجوز استعمال غيرهما من الأواني

It is not permissible to use vessels of gold and silver. It is permissible to use vessels made from materials besides those two.

والسواك مستحب في كل حال إلا بعد الزوال للصائم وهو في ثلاثة مواضع أشد استحبابا عند تغير الفم من أزم وغيره وعند القيام من النوم وعند القيام إلى الصلاة

The toothstick (al-siwāk) is recommended in every case, except after the decline of the sun for one who is fasting. It is more strongly recommended in three situations: when taste in the mouth has changed by staleness or something else, when rising from sleep, and when commencing the prayer.

وفروض الوضوء ستة أشياء النية عند غسل الوجه وغسل الوجه وغسل اليدين مع المرفقين ومسح بعض الرأس وغسل الرجلين إلى الكعبين والترتيب على ما ذكرناه

The obligatory acts of ablution are six things: intention at the time of washing the face, washing the face, washing the arms including the elbows, wiping part of the head, washing the feet up to the ankles, and performance in the order we mentioned.

وسننه عشرة أشياء التسمية وغسل الكفين قبل إدخالهما الإناء والمضمضة والاستنشاق ومسح الأذنين ظاهرهما وباطنهما بماء جديد وتخليل اللحية الكثة وتخليل أصابع اليدين والرجلين وتقديم اليمنى على اليسرى والطهارة ثلاثا ثلاثا والموالاة

Its prophetic practices (sunan) are ten things: beginning in the name of Allah, washing the hands before inserting them into the vessel, rinsing the mouth, sniffing and expelling water through the nose, wiping the outer and inner parts of the ears with new water, running fingers through a thick beard, running fingers between fingers and toes, giving priority to the right side over the left, performing each act three times, and doing so in continuity.

والذي ينقض الوضوء ستة أشياء ما خرج من السبيلين والنوم على غير هيئة المتمكن وزوال العقل بسكر أو مرض ولمس الرجل المرأة الأجنبية من غير حائل ومس فرج الآدمي بباطن الكف ومس حلقة دبره على الجديد

That which invalidates ablution are six things: whatever exits the two passages (urine, feces, etc.), sleeping while not firmly seated, losing consciousness due to intoxication or illness, a man directly touching an unrelated woman without a barrier, touching human genitals with the inside of the palm, and touching the anus, according to the new school (of al-Shāfi’ī after he resided in Egypt).

والذي يوجب الغسل ستة أشياء ثلاثة تشترك فيها الرجال والنساء وهي التقاء الختانين وإنزال المني والموت وثلاثة تختص بها النساء وهي الحيض والنفاس والولادة

That which necessitates a ritual bath are six things, three of which apply to men and women: contact between the two private parts, ejaculation of fluid, and death. Three which are specific to women are menstruation, postnatal bleeding, and performing birth.

وفرائض الغسل ثلاثة أشياء النية وإزالة النجاسة إن كانت على بدنه وإيصال الماء إلى جميع الشعر والبشرة

The obligatory acts of the ritual bath are three things: intention, removing any filth that may be on one’s body, and water reaching to every part of the hair and skin.

وسننه خمسة أشياء التسمية والوضوء قبله وإمرار اليد على الجسد والموالاة وتقديم اليمنى على اليسرى

Its prophetic practices are five: beginning in the name of Allah, performing ablution before it, passing the hand over the body, performing it in continuity, and giving priority to the right side over the left.

والاغتسالات المسنونة سبعة عشر غسلا غسل الجمعة والعيدين والاستسقاء والخسوف والكسوف والغسل من غسل الميت والكافر إذا أسلم والمجنون والمغمى عليه إذا أفاقا والغسل عند الإحرام ولدخول مكة وللوقوف بعرفة وللمبيت بمزدلفة ولرمي الجمار الثلاث وللطواف وللسعي ولدخول مدينة الرسول صلى الله عليه وسلم

There are seventeen prophetic ritual baths: the bath on Friday, the two Eids, the drought prayer, the solar eclipse prayer, the lunar eclipse prayer, the bath after washing the dead, the unbeliever when he embraces Islam, the insane and the unconscious after regaining consciousness, the bath at the time of entering the state of pilgrimage (al-iḥrām), entering Mecca, standing for Arafat, residing at Muzdalifah, throwing stones at the three pillars, performing circumambulation, running between al-Ṣafā and al-Marwah, and entering the city of the Messenger, peace and blessings be upon him.

والمسح على الخفين جائز بثلاثة شرائط أن يبتدئ لبسهما بعد كمال الطهارة وأن يكونا ساترين لمحل غسل الفرض من القدمين وأن يكونا مما يمكن تتابع المشي عليهما

Wiping over leather socks (al-khuffayn) is permissible with three conditions: that one began to wear them after completing purification, that they cover the areas of the feet which are obligatory to wash, and that one can walk successively in them.

ويمسح المقيم يوما وليلة والمسافر ثلاثة أيام بلياليهن وابتداء المدة من حين يحدث بعد لبس الخفين فإن مسح في الحضر ثم سافر أو مسح في السفر ثم أقام أتم مسح مقيم

The wiping of the resident is for one day and the traveler for three days and their nights. The time period begins when one loses purity after wearing the socks. If one wipes as a resident and then travels, or wipes as a traveler and then resides, it is completed as the wiping of a resident.

ويبطل المسح بثلاثة أشياء بخلعهما وانقضاء المدة وما يوجب الغسل

Wiping is invalidated by three things: removing them, finishing the time period, and whatever necessitates a ritual bath.


 Prayer الصلاة

الصلاة المفروضة خمس

The obligatory prayers are five.

 الظهر وأول وقتها زوال الشمس وآخره إذا صار ظل كل شيء مثله بعد ظل الزوال

Noon prayer (al-ẓuhr), the beginning of its time is at the decline of the sun from its zenith, and the end of its time is when the shadow of everything is equal to its height but minus the shadow at the time of decline.

والعصر وأول وقتها الزيادة على ظل المثل وآخره في الاختيار إلى ظل المثلين وفي الجواز إلى غروب الشمس

Afternoon prayer (al-‘aṣr), the beginning of its time is when the length of a thing’s shadow is greater than its height, the preferred end of its time is when the length of the shadow is double its height, and the permissible end of its time is up to the setting of the sun.

والمغرب ووقتها واحد وهو غروب الشمس وبمقدار ما يؤذن ويتوضأ ويستر العورة ويقيم الصلاة ويصلي خمس ركعات

The sunset prayer (al-maghrib), it has only one time, which is the setting of the sun, and it is within the amount of time it takes to announce the call to prayer, perform ablution, become fully clothed, perform the commencement of prayer, and to pray five cycles (raka’āt).

والعشاء وأول وقتها إذا غاب الشفق الأحمر وآخره في الاختيار إلى ثلث الليل وفي الجواز إلى طلوع الفجر الثاني

The evening prayer (al-‘ishā’), the beginning of its time is when the redness of the horizon disappears, the preferred end of its time is up to a third of the night, and the permissible end of its time is up to the rising of the second dawn (al-fajr).

والصبح وأول وقتها طلوع الفجر الثاني وآخره في الاختيار إلى الأسفار وفي الجواز إلى طلوع الشمس

The dawn prayer (al-ṣubḥ), the beginning of its time is at the rising of the second dawn, the preferred end of its time is until yellow glows on the horizon, and the permissible end of its time is at the rising of the sun.

وشرائط وجوب الصلاة ثلاثة أشياء الإسلام والبلوغ والعقل وهو حد التكليف

The necessary conditions for prayer are three things: adherence to Islam, maturity, and sanity. This is the definition of legal responsibility (al-taklīf).

والصلوات المسنونة خمس العيدان والكسوفان والاستسقاء

The prophetic prayers (sunan) are five: the two Eids, the two eclipse prayers, and the drought prayer.

والسنن التابعة للفرائض سبعة عشر ركعة ركعتا الفجر وأربع قبل الظهر وركعتان بعده وأربع قبل العصر وركعتان بعد المغرب وثلاث بعد العشاء يوتر بواحدة منهن

The recommended prayers following the obligatory prayers are seventeen cycles: two cycles before dawn prayer, four cycles before noon prayer and two after it, four cycles before afternoon prayer, two cycles after sunset prayer, and three cycles after evening prayer, one of which is witr prayer.

 وثلاث نوافل مؤكدات صلاة الليل وصلاة الضحى وصلاة التراويح

Three extra prayers are emphasized: the night prayer, the forenoon prayer, and the night prayer during Ramadan (al-tarāwīḥ)

وشرائط الصلاة قبل الدخول فيها خمسة أشياء طهارة الأعضاء من الحدث والنجس وستر العورة بلباس طاهر والوقوف على مكان طاهر والعلم بدخول الوقت واستقبال القبلة

The conditions before entering into prayer are five things: ritual purification of the limbs from impurity and filth, covering one’s nakedness with clean clothes, standing over a clean place, knowing the prayer has entered its time, and facing the direction of prayer (al-qiblah).

ويجوز ترك القبلة في حالتين في شدة الخوف وفي النافلة في السفر على الراحلة

It is permissible to pray away from the direction of prayer in two cases: in a time of great fear and in voluntary prayers while travelling upon one’s mount.

وأركان الصلاة ثمانية عشر ركنا النية والقيام مع القدرة وتكبيرة الإحرام وقراءة الفاتحة وبسم الله الرحمن الرحيم آية منها والركوع والطمأنينة فيه والرفع واعتدال والطمأنينة فيه والسجود والطمأنينة فيه والجلوس بين السجدتين والطمأنينة فيه والجلوس الأخير والتشهد فيه والصلاة على النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم فيه والتسليمة الأولى ونية الخروج من الصلاة وترتيب الأركان على ما ذكرناه

The pillars of the prayer are eighteen: intention, standing if capable, exalting Allah to enter the state of prayer (al-takbīr), reciting Sūrat al-Fātiḥah (of which saying ‘in the name of Allah, the Gracious, the Merciful’ is a verse), bowing and being calm in it, rising and standing straight and being calm in it, prostration and being calm in it, sitting between the two prostrations and being calm in it, the final sitting, reciting the testimony of Islam in it (al-tashahhud), sending blessings upon the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, ending with a salutation of peace (al-taslīmah), intending to exit prayer, and performing the pillars in order as we mentioned.

وسننها قبل الدخول فيها شيئان الأذان والإقامة

Its prophetic practices before entering it are two things: the call to prayer (al-ādhān) and the commencement call to prayer (al-iqāmah).

وبعد الدخول فيها شيئان التشهد الأول والقنوت في الصبح وفي الوتر في النصف الثاني من شهر رمضان

After entering it are two prophetic practices: the first testimony of Islam and the standing supplication (al-qunūt) in the dawn prayer, in witr prayer, and during the second half of Ramadan.

 وهيأتها خمسة عشر خصلة رفع اليدين عند تكبيرة الإحرام وعند الركوع والرفع منه ووضع اليمين على الشمال والتوجه والاستعاذة والجهر في موضعه والإسرار في موضعه والتأمين وقراءة سورة بعد الفاتحة والتكبيرات عند الرفع والخفض وقول سمع الله لمن حمده ربنا لك الحمد والتسبيح في الركوع والسجود ووضع اليدين على الفخذين في الجلوس يبسط اليسرى ويقبض اليمنى إلا المسبحة فإنه يشير بها متشهدا والافتراش في جميع الجلسات والتورك في الجلسة الأخيرة والتسليمة الثانية.

Its supererogatory acts are fifteen: raising the two hands when exalting Allah to enter prayer, when bowing, and when rising from it, placing the right hand over the left, reciting the opening supplications, seeking refuge in Allah, reciting audibly in its appropriate situation, reciting inaudibly in its appropriate situation, saying amīn, reciting a sūrah after al-Fātiḥah, exalting Allah when rising and lowering, saying ‘Allah heard those who praised him, our Lord for you is all praise,’ glorifying Allah (al-tasbī) in bowing and prostration, placing the hands on the thighs during the sitting while closing fingers on the right hand and extending fingers on the left hand except for the right index finger which points during the testimony, sitting with the right foot propped up (al-iftirāsh) in every sitting, sitting with the left foot tucked under (al-tawarruk) in the final sitting, and ending with two salutations of peace.

والمرأة تخالف الرجل في خمسة أشياء فالرجل يجافي مرفقيه عن جنبيه ويقل بطنه عن فخذيه في الركوع والسجود ويجهر في مواضع الجهر وإذا نابه شيء في الصلاة سبح وعورة الرجل ما بين سرته وركبته

Women differ from men in five things: a man spreads his elbows out from his sides, he moves his stomach away from his thighs while bowing and prostrating, he recites audibly in its appropriate situation, he glorifies Allah if something happens to him in prayer, and his nakedness is between his navel and his knees.

والمرأة تضم بعضها إلى بعض وتخفض صوتها بحضرة الرجال الأجانب وإذا نابها شيء في الصلاة صفقت وجميع بدن الحرة عورة إلا وجهها وكفيها

A woman draws herself closely together, she lowers her voice in the presence of unrelated men, she claps if something happens to her in prayer, and her entire body is nakedness except for her face and hands.

والذي يبطل الصلاة أحد عشر شيئا الكلام العمد والعمل الكثير والحدث وحدوث النجاسة وانكشاف العورة وتغير النية واستدبار القبلة والأكل والشرب والقهقهة والردة

That which invalidates the prayer are eleven things: deliberately speaking, moving too much, passing wind, the presence of filth, uncovering one’s nakedness, changing one’s intention, turning one’s back to the direction of prayer, eating, drinking, bursting out in laughter, and apostasy.

 ومن عجز عن القيام في الفريضة صلى جالسا ومن عجز عن الجلوس صلى مضطجعا

Whoever is unable to stand in the obligatory prayer may pray sitting, and whoever is unable to pray sitting may pray while lying down.

والمتروك من الصلاة ثلاثة أشياء فرض وسنة وهيئة فالفرض لا ينوب عنه سجود السهو بل إن ذكره والزمان قريب أتى به وبنى عليه وسجد للسهو

Three things might accidentally be left out of the prayer: an obligatory act, a prophetic practice, and a supererogatory act. An obligation that was left out cannot be replaced by the prostration of forgetfulness (sujūd al-sahw). Rather, if he remembers it soon afterwards, he performs it, bases the rest of the prayer on it, and performs the prostration of forgetfulness at the end.

والسنة لا يعود إليها بعد التلبس بالفرض لكنه يسجد للسهو عنها

A prophetic practice that is left out is not returned to after engaging in an obligatory act. Rather, the prostration of forgetfulness is performed for it.

والهيئة لا يعود إليها بعد تركها ولا يسجد للسهو عنها

A supererogatory trait that is left out is not returned to after it passes, nor is the prostration of forgetfulness performed for it.

وإذا شك في عدد ما أتى به من الركعات بنى على اليقين وهو الأقل وسجد للسهو

If one is unsure of the number of cycles he has performed, he bases the rest of the prayer on what he knows for sure, which is the least amount, and he performs the prostration of forgetfulness.

وسجود السهو سنة ومحله قبل السلام

The prostration of forgetfulness is a prophetic practice and its place is before the ending salutation of peace.

وخمسة أوقات لا يصلى فيها إلا صلاة لها سبب بعد صلاة الصبح حتى تطلع الشمس وعند طلوعها حتى تتكامل وترتفع قدر رمح وإذا استوت حتى تزول وبعد صلاة العصر حتى تغرب الشمس وعند الغروب حتى يتكامل غروبها

There are five times when prayer is not performed unless one has a valid reason: after the dawn prayer until the rising of the sun, at the time of its rising until it has completely risen and is the length of a spear above the horizon, when it is at its zenith until it declines, after the afternoon prayer until the sunset prayer, and at the setting of the sun until it completes its setting.

وصلاة الجماعة سنة مؤكدة وعلى المأموم أن ينوي الائتمام دون الإمام ويجوز أن يأتم الحر بالعبد والبالغ بالمراهق

The congregational prayer is an emphasized prophetic practice (sunnah mu’akkadah). Those who are led in prayer intend to be led, except for the Imam. It is permissible for a free man to be led by a slave and an adult to be led by an adolescent.

ولا تصح قدوة رجل بامرأة ولا قارئ بأمي

It is not sound for a man to be led by a woman in prayer, nor for a reciter to be led by an illiterate.

وأي موضع صلى في المسجد بصلاة الإمام فيه وهو عالم بصلاته أجزئه ما لم يتقدم عليه وإن صلى في المسجد والمأموم خارج المسجد قريبا منه وهو عالم بصلاته ولا حائل هناك جاز

Whichever place one prays in the mosque behind an Imam, while being aware of his prayer, will benefit him as long as he does not pray ahead of the Imam. If he prays inside the mosque and leads a group near him outside of the mosque, while they are aware of his prayer and there is no barrier, it is permissible.

ويجوز للمسافر قصر الصلاة الرباعية بخمس شرائط أن يكون سفره في غير معصية وأن يكون مسافته ستة عشر فرسخا بلا إياب وأن يكون مؤديا للصلاة الرباعية وأن ينوي القصر مع الإحرام وأن لا يأتم بمقيم

It is permissible for the traveler to shorten the prayers of four cycles under five conditions: his journey is for a reason other than disobedience to Allah, the distance is sixteen farsakh (81 kilometers) excluding the return trip, the prayer is normally performed with four cycles, he intends to shorten them as he enters into the state of prayer, and he is not led by a resident.

ويجوز للمسافر أن يجمع بين الظهر والعصر في وقت أيهما شاء وبين المغرب والعشاء في وقت أيهما شاء

It is permissible for the traveler to combine between noon and afternoon prayers in whichever of their times he wishes, and between sunset and evening prayers in whichever of their times he wishes.

ويجوز للحاضر في المطر أن يجمع بينهما في وقت الأولى منهما

It is permissible for the resident during rainfall to combine between them in the time of the first of them.

وشرائط وجوب الجمعة سبعة أشياء الإسلام والبلوغ والعقل والحرية والذكورية والصحة والاستيطان

The conditions which necessitate one to join Friday congregational prayer are seven things: adherence to Islam, maturity, sanity, freedom, being a male, health, and capability.

وشرائط فعلها ثلاثة أن تكون البلد مصرا أو قرية وأن يكون العدد أربعين من أهل الجمعة وأن يكون الوقت باقيا فإن خرج الوقت أو عدمت الشروط صليت ظهرا

The conditions of its performance are three: that the land is an urban city or rural village, that the people attending Friday prayer are forty in number, and that it remains within its time. If its time has passed or a condition is nullified, the noon prayer is performed.

وفرائضها ثلاثة خطبتان يقوم فيهما ويجلس بينهما وأن تصلى ركعتين في جماعة

Its obligatory acts are three: the Imam delivers two speeches while standing, he sits between them, and two cycles are prayed in congregation.

وهيأتها أربع خصال الغسل وتنظيف الجسد ولبس الثياب البيض وأخذ الظفر والطيب

Its supererogatory acts are four: performing the ritual bath and cleansing the body, wearing white clothing, trimming one’s nails, and applying perfume.

ويستحب الإنصات في وقت الخطبة ومن دخل والإمام يخطب صلى ركعتين خفيفتين ثم يجلس

It is recommended to listen attentively during the time of the speech. Whoever enters while the Imam is speaking prays two light cycles and sits down.

وصلاة العيدين سنة مؤكدة وهي ركعتان يكبر في الأولى سبعا سوى تكبيرة الإحرام وفي الثانية خمسا سوى تكبيرة القيام

The prayer on the two Eids is an emphasized prophetic practice and it is two cycles. The exaltation of Allah is seven times in the first cycle, not including the opening exaltation, and five times in the second cycle, not including the exaltation to stand from prostration.

ويخطب بعدها خطبتين يكبر في الأولى تسعا وفي الثانية سبعا ويكبر من غروب الشمس من ليلة العيد إلى أن يدخل الإمام في الصلاة

The Imam delivers two speeches after them, in which he exalts Allah nine times in the first speech and seven times in the second speech. Customary supplications are recited upon the rising of the sun from the night of Eid until the Imam enters into prayer.

وفي الأضحى خلف الصلوات المفروضات من صبح يوم عرفة إلى العصر من آخر أيام التشريق

On the day of Eid al-Aḍḥá, they are recited after the obligatory prayers from the morning of the day of Arafat until the afternoon of the last of the days of tashrīq.

ويحرم على الرجال لبس الحرير والتختم بالذهب ويحل للنساء وقليل الذهب وكثيره في التحريم سواء وإذا كان بعض الثوب إبريسما وبعضه قطنا أو كتانا جاز لبسه ما لم يكن الإبريسم غالبا

It is forbidden for men to wear silk or gold jewelry, yet it is permissible for women. It is prohibited the same whether it is a small or large amount of gold. If part of the silken garment is cotton or linen, it is permissible to wear as long as the majority of it is not silk.

ويلزم في الميت أربعة أشياء غسله وتكفينه والصلاة عليه ودفنه واثنان لا يغسلان ولا يصلي عليهما الشهيد في معركة المشركين والسقط الذي لم يستهل صارخا

Required acts for the deceased are four things: washing the body, shrouding them, praying over them, and burying them. Two are not washed or prayed over: a martyr who died fighting idolaters, and a fetus which never began to cry.

ويغسل الميت وترا ويكون في أول غسله سدر وفي آخره شيء من كافور ويكفن في ثلاثة أثواب بيض ليس فيها قميص ولا عمامة

They are washed an odd number of times. Lote is used in the first washing and a bit of camphor in the last washing. They are shrouded in three white garments that are not shirts or turbans.

ويدفن في لحد مستقبل القبلة ويسل من قبل رأسه برفق ويقول الذي يلحده: بسم الله وعلى ملة رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم

They are buried in a pit facing the direction of prayer. They are lowered gently into the grave head first. Those who place them into the grave say: In the name of Allah and upon the religion of the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him.

ويضجع في القبر بعد أن يعمق قامة وبسطة ويسطح القبر ولا يبنى عليه ولا يجصص

They are placed on their side in the grave after it is dug deep enough for one to stand in it and extend their arms. The grave is leveled and nothing is built or plastered over it.

ولا بأس بالبكاء على الميت من غير نوح ولا شق جيب ويعزى أهله إلى ثلاثة أيام من دفنه ولا يدفن اثنان في قبر إلا لحاجة

There is no harm in crying over the dead, without wailing or tearing one’s collar. The family of the deceased is given condolences for up to three days after the burial. Two are not buried in one grave unless there is a need to do so.


Alms الزكاة

تجب الزكاة في خمسة أشياء وهي المواشي والأثمان والزروع والثمار وعروض التجارة

Alms (al-zakāh) are obligatory in five things: livestock, currency, agriculture, fruits, and trade goods.

وأما الأتمان فشيئان الذهب والفضة وشرائط وجوب الزكاة فيها خمسة أشياء الإسلام والحرية والملك التام والنصاب والحول

As for currency, they are of two types: gold and silver. The necessary conditions for one to give alms from them are five things: adherence to Islam, freedom, complete ownership, owning the minimum amount, and owning it for a year.

ونصاب الذهب عشرون مثقالا وفيه ربع العشر وهو نصف مثقال وفيما زاد بحسابه

The minimum portion of gold is twenty mithqāl (85 grams) on which is owed 2.5% or half of a mithqāl. Whatever is more is calculated in proportion.

ولا تجب في الحلي المباح زكاة

It is not obligatory to give alms from permissible jewelry.

وتقوم عروض التجارة عند آخر الحول بما اشتريت به ويخرج من ذلك ربع العشر

The appraisal of trade goods is done at the end of the year according to the currency with which they were purchased. An amount of 2.5% is taken out of that.

وتجب زكاة الفطر بثلاثة أشياء الإسلام وبغروب الشمس من آخر يوم من شهر رمضان ووجود الفضل عن قوته وقوت عياله في ذلك اليوم

Alms at the end of Ramadan (zakāt al-fiṭr) are obligatory for one with three conditions: adherence to Islam, the sun has set on the last day of Ramadan, and one has more than enough to sustain the livelihood of himself and his dependents on that day.

ويزكي عن نفسه وعمن تلزمه نفقته من المسلمين صاعا من قوت بلده

One gives alms on behalf of himself and for the Muslims he is required to spend upon, one and a half kilograms (ṣa’) of food resources in his country.

وتدفع الزكاة إلى الأصناف الثمانية الذين ذكرهم الله تعالى في كتابه العزيز في قوله تعالى إِنَّمَا الصَّدَقَاتُ لِلْفُقَرَاءِ وَالْمَسَاكِينِ وَالْعَامِلِينَ عَلَيْهَا وَالْمُؤَلَّفَةِ قُلُوبُهُمْ وَفِي الرِّقَابِ وَالْغَارِمِينَ وَفِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ وَابْنِ السَّبِيلِ وإلى من يوجد منهم ولا يقتصر على أقل من ثلاثة من كل صنف إلا العامل

Alms are paid to eight groups whom Allah Almighty mentioned in His honorable book, ‘Verily, charities are only for the poor, the needy, those employed to collect it, bringing hearts together, freeing slaves, those in debt, for the cause of Allah, and for the stranded traveler,’ (9:60). It is paid to whomever among them are found and it is not permissible to restrict payment to less than three of each group, except for the workers.


Fasting الصوم

وشرائط وجوب الصيام أربعة أشياء الإسلام والبلوغ والعقل والقدرة على الصوم

The conditions which obligate one to fast are four things: adherence to Islam, maturity, sanity, and ability to fast.

وفرائض الصوم أربعة أشياء النية والإمساك عن الأكل والشرب والجماع وتعمد القيء

The obligatory actions in fasting are four things: intention, abstaining from eating and drinking, abstaining from intercourse, and deliberately vomiting.

والذي يفطر به الصائم عشرة أشياء ما وصل عمدا إلى الجوف أو الرأس والحقنة في أحد السبيلين والقيء عمدا والوطء عمدا في الفرج والإنزال عن مباشرة والحيض والنفاس والجنون والإغماء كل اليوم والردة

That which breaks the fast are ten things: whatever deliberately reaches the inner parts of the abdomen and head, injection into one of the two passages, deliberately vomiting, deliberate sexual intercourse, ejaculation due to contact, menstruation, postnatal bleeding, insanity, and apostasy.

ويستحب في الصوم ثلاثة أشياء تعجيل الفطر وتأخير السحور وترك الهجر من الكلام

It is recommended while fasting to do three things: hastening to break the fast at its earliest possible time, delaying the pre-dawn meal (al-suḥūr) until its latest possible time, and avoiding offensive discourse.

ويحرم صيام خمسة أيام العيدان وأيام التشريق الثلاثة ويكره صوم يوم الشك إلا أن يوافق عادة له أو يصله بما قبله

It is forbidden to fast on five days: the two days of Eid and the three days of tashrīq. It is disapproved to fast on the ‘day of doubt’ (if it is uncertain that Ramadan has begun), unless it coincides with one’s habit or is connected to days fasted before it.

ومن وطئ في نهار رمضان عامدا في الفرج فعليه القضاء والكفارة وهي عتق رقبة مؤمنة فإن لم يجد فصيام شهرين متتابعين فإن لم يستطع فإطعام ستين مسكينا لكل مسكين مد

Whoever deliberately has sexual intercourse during the daytime in Ramadan must repeat the fast and offer an expiation, which is to free a believing slave. If one is not found, then to fast two consecutive months. If one cannot do so, then to feed sixty poor people with half a kilogram of food (mudd).

ومن مات وعليه صيام من رمضان أطعم عنه لكل يوم مد

Whoever dies while fasting in Ramadan (and owes additional fasts), half a kilogram of food is given on his behalf for each day.

 والشيخ إذا عجز عن الصوم يفطر ويطعم عن كل يوم مدا

An elderly person, who is unable to fast, does not fast and instead gives half a kilogram of food for each day.

والحامل والمرضع إن خافتا على أنفسهما أفطرتا وعليهما القضاء وإن خافتا على أولادهما أفطرتا وعليهما القضاء والكفارة عن كل يوم مد

A pregnant or nursing woman, if she fears harm for herself, breaks her fast and must repeat the fast later. If she fears harm for her child, she breaks her fast, she must repeat the fast later, and she offers an expiation of half a kilogram of food for each day.

والمريض والمسافر سفرا طويلا يفطران ويقضيان

The sick person and the traveler on a long journey break their fast and repeat it later.

والاعتكاف سنة مستحبة وله شرطان النية واللبث في المسجد ولا يخرج من الاعتكاف المنذور إلا لحاجة الإنسان أو عذر من حيض أو مرض لا يمكن المقام معه ويبطل بالوطء

Retreat in the mosque (al-‘itikāf) is a recommended prophetic practice and it has two conditions: intention and residing in the mosque. One does not leave from a vowed retreat unless there is a human need to do so, or an excuse such as menstruation or sickness, which cannot be done in its location. Retreat is invalidated by intercourse.


Ḥajj Pilgrimage الحج

وشرائط وجوب الحج سبعة أشياء الإسلام والبلوغ والعقل والحرية ووجود الزاد والراحلة وتخلية الطريق وإمكان المسير

The conditions which obligate one to perform the Hajj pilgrimage are seven things: adherence to Islam, maturity, sanity, freedom, existence of supplies and transportation, safe passage, and the possibility of completing the journey.

وأركان الحج أربعة الإحرام مع النية والوقوف بعرفة والطواف بالبيت والسعي بين الصفا والمروة

The pillars of the Hajj pilgrimage are four: entering the state of pilgrimage (al-iḥrām) with intention, standing on the plain of Arafat, performing circumambulation (al-ṭawāf) around the House, and running between al-Ṣafā and al-Marwah.

وأركان العمرة اربعة الإحرام والطواف والسعي والحلق أو التقصير في أحد القولين

The pillars of the Umrah pilgrimage are four: entering the state of pilgrimage, circumambulation, running, and shaving or trimming the hair, in one of two opinions.

وواجبات الحج غير الأركان ثلاثة الإحرام من الميقات ورمي الجمار الثلاث والحلق

Necessary actions in the Hajj pilgrimage, besides the pillars, are three: entering the state of pilgrimage at the proper places (al-mīqāt), throwing stones at the three pillars, and shaving the hair.

وسنن الحج سبع الإفراد وهو تقديم الحج على العمرة والتلبية وطواف القدوم والمبيت بمزدلفة وركعتا الطواف والمبيت بمنى وطواف الوداع

The prophetic practices of the Hajj pilgrimage are seven: giving priority to Hajj before Umrah, the invocation (al-talbīyah), circumambulation upon arrival, residing at Muzdalifah, performing two cycles of prayer after circumambulation, residing in Mina, and circumambulation upon departing.

ويتجرد الرجل عند الإحرام من المخيط ويلبس إزارا ورداء أبيضين

Men remove stitched clothing when entering the state of pilgrimage. They wear one upper and one lower white garment.

ويحرم على المحرم عشرة أشياء لبس المخيط وتغطية الرأس من الرجل والوجه من المرأة وترجيل الشعر وحلقه وتقليم الأظفار والطيب وقتل الصيد وعقد النكاح والوطء والمباشرة بشهوة

It is forbidden for the pilgrim to do ten things: wearing stitched clothing, covering the head for men and the face for women, oiling one’s hair, shaving it, trimming one’s nails, applying perfume, hunting game, conducting a marriage, intercourse, and touching with arousal.

 وفي جميع ذلك الفدية إلا عقد النكاح فإنه لا ينعقد ولا يفسده إلا الوطء في الفرج ولا يخرج منه بالفساد

In all of that is a required atonement, except for conducting a marriage as it was not properly conducted. None of these invalidate the pilgrimage except for sexual intercourse, yet one does not exit the state of pilgrimage due to its invalidation.

ولا يجوز قتل صيد الحرم ولا قطع شجره والمحل والمحرم في ذلك سواء

It is not permissible to kill game near the sanctuary, nor to cut its trees. The visitor and the pilgrim are the same in that regard.

Success comes from Allah, and Allah knows best.