Ibn Taymiyyah on divine providence and free will

May 11, 2013

Majmu' Al-Fatawa Ibn Taymiyyah

By Abu Amina Elias

In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful

Ibn Taymiyyah was asked, “Can provision be increased or decreased?”

He responded:

Provision is of two kinds. First, it is that which Allah knows He will provide and cannot be changed. Second, it is that which Allah has prescribed and informed the angels. This may increase or decrease depending upon the circumstances. If Allah commanded the angels to write provision for a person because he has upheld his family ties, then Allah will increase his provision because of that. It is proven in the authentic narration that the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, said:

مَنْ سَرَّهُ أَنْ يُبْسَطَ لَهُ فِي رِزْقِهِ وَأَنْ يُنْسَأَ لَهُ فِي أَثَرِهِ فَلْيَصِلْ رَحِمَهُ

Whoever is pleased to be given more wealth and to have his life extended, then he should keep good relations with his family.

Source: Sahih Bukhari 5639, Grade: Sahih

Likewise, the life span of David was extended by sixty years and Allah made it one hundred years, although it was forty. And this is as Umar, may Allah be pleased with him, said:

اللَّهُمَّ إنْ كُنْتَ كَتَبْتَنِي شَقِيًّا فَامْحُنِي وَاكْتُبْنِي سَعِيدًا فَإِنَّكَ تَمْحُو مَا تَشَاءُ

O Allah, if you have written me among the wretched, then erase it and write me among the fortunate, for verily, you can erase whatever you will.

Likewise, Allah said about Noah, upon him be peace:

أَنِ اعْبُدُوا اللَّهَ وَاتَّقُوهُ وَأَطِيعُونِ يَغْفِرْ لَكُم مِّن ذُنُوبِكُمْ وَيُؤَخِّرْكُمْ إِلَىٰ أَجَلٍ مُّسَمًّى ۚ

Worship Allah, fear Him and obey me. Allah will forgive you of your sins and delay you for a specified term.

Surah An-Nuh 71:3-4

There is much evidence for this. The means of acquiring provision are under what Allah has decreed. If it has been decreed that a person will earn his provision by means of work and effort, then Alah will cause him to work and expend effort, and that which has been decreed for him by means of work will not come about unless he works for it. And what has been decreed for him without having to earn it, such as inheritance, will come to him without his effort.

Source: Majmu’ Al-Fatawa 8/540

سُئِلَ شَيْخُ الْإِسْلَامِ عَنْ الرِّزْقِ هَلْ يَزِيدُ أَوْ يَنْقُصُ ؟

فَأَجَابَ الرِّزْقُ نَوْعَانِ أَحَدُهُمَا مَا عَلِمَهُ اللَّهُ أَنَّهُ يَرْزُقُهُ فَهَذَا لَا يَتَغَيَّرُ وَ الثَّانِي مَا كَتَبَهُ وَأَعْلَمَ بِهِ الْمَلَائِكَةَ فَهَذَا يَزِيدُ وَيَنْقُصُ بِحَسَبِ الْأَسْبَابِ فَإِنَّ الْعَبْدَ يَأْمُرُ اللَّهُ الْمَلَائِكَةَ أَنْ تَكْتُبَ لَهُ رِزْقًا وَإِنْ وَصَلَ رَحِمَهُ زَادَهُ اللَّهُ عَلَى ذَلِكَ كَمَا ثَبَتَ فِي الصَّحِيحِ عَنْ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ أَنَّهُ قَالَ مَنْ سَرَّهُ أَنْ يُبْسَطَ لَهُ فِي رِزْقِهِ وَيُنْسَأَ لَهُ فِي أَثَرِهِ فَلْيَصِلْ رَحِمَهُ وَكَذَلِكَ عُمْرُ داود زَادَ سِتِّينَ سَنَةً فَجَعَلَهُ اللَّهُ مِائَةً بَعْدَ أَنْ كَانَ أَرْبَعِينَ

وَمِنْ هَذَا الْبَابِ قَوْلُ عُمَرَ اللَّهُمَّ إنْ كُنْتَ كَتَبْتَنِي شَقِيًّا فَامْحُنِي وَاكْتُبْنِي سَعِيدًا فَإِنَّكَ تَمْحُو مَا تَشَاءُ وَتُثْبِتُ وَمِنْ هَذَا الْبَابِ قَوْله تَعَالَى عَنْ نُوحٍ  أَنِ اعْبُدُوا اللَّهَ وَاتَّقُوهُ وَأَطِيعُونِ يَغْفِرْ لَكُمْ مِنْ ذُنُوبِكُمْ وَيُؤَخِّرْكُمْ إلَى أَجَلٍ مُسَمًّى وَشَوَاهِدُهُ كَثِيرَةٌ

وَالْأَسْبَابُ الَّتِي يَحْصُلُ بِهَا الرِّزْقُ هِيَ مِنْ جُمْلَةِ مَا قَدَّرَهُ اللَّهُ وَكَتَبَهُ فَإِنْ كَانَ قَدْ تَقَدَّمَ بِأَنَّهُ يَرْزُقُ الْعَبْدَ بِسَعْيِهِ وَاكْتِسَابِهِ أَلْهَمَهُ السَّعْيَ وَالِاكْتِسَابَ وَذَلِكَ الَّذِي قَدَّرَهُ لَهُ بِالِاكْتِسَابِ لَا يَحْصُلُ بِدُونِ الِاكْتِسَابِ وَمَا قَدَّرَهُ لَهُ بِغَيْرِ اكْتِسَابٍ كَمَوْتِ مَوْرُوثِهِ يَأْتِيهِ بِهِ بِغَيْرِ اكْتِسَابٍ

مجموع فتاوى ابن تيمية العقيدة كتاب القدر مسألة حقيقة الرزق وأنواعه وهل يزيد أوينقص فصل الرزق يراد به شيئان

Success comes from Allah, and Allah knows best.