Ibn Qudamah on voluntary fasting

July 16, 2013

Umdat-fi-Al-Fiqh-Ibn-Qudamah

By Abu Amina Elias for FaithinAllah.org

In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful

Ibn Qudamah writes in his book Umdat fil Fiqh:

The best fasting is that of David, upon him be peace, which is to fast every other day.

The best fasting after the month of Ramadan is in the month of Muharram.

There are no days on which righteous deeds are more beloved to Allah than the first ten days of the month of Dhul-Hijjah.

Whoever fasts the month of Ramadan and regularly follows it by fasting six days in the month of Shawwal will be counted as if he has fasted his entire life.

Fasting on the day of Ashura, the tenth day of Muharram, is an expiation for the sins committed in one year, and fasting on the day of Arafat is an expiation for the sins committed in two years. For the one who is at Arafat during the Hajj pilgrimage, it is preferred for him not to fast.

It is preferable to fast the white days, the thirteenth, fourteenth, and fifteenth of every lunar month, as well as Mondays and Thursdays.

The person performing the voluntary fast is in charge of himself. If he wishes, he may fast, and if he wishes, he may break the fast, in which case he is not required to perform an expiation. Likewise is the ruling for all voluntary acts except for Hajj and Umrah. These two must be completed and if they are invalidated, they must be made up.

The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, forbade fasting on two days: the day of Eid Al-Fitr and the day of Eid Al-Adha. In addition, he forbade fasting on the days of tashreeq (the three days following Eid Al-Adha) except for the person completing tamattu’ (performing Umrah before Hajj) and who cannot afford a sacrificial animal.

As for the Night of Decree (laylat al-qadr), it is one of the odd nights during the last ten nights of Ramadan.

Source: Umdat fil Fiqh

أفضل الصيام صيام داود عليه السلام كان يصوم يوما ويفطر يوما وأفضل الصيام بعد شهر رمضان شهر الله الذي يدعونه المحرم وما من أيام العمل الصالح فيهن أحب إلى الله من عشر ذي الحجة ومن صام رمضان وأتبعه بست من شوال فكأنما صام الدهر كله وصيام يوم عاشوراء كفارة سنة وصيام يوم عرفة كفارة سنتين ولا يستحب لمن بعرفة أن يصومه ويستحب صيام أيام البيض والاثنين والخميس.

والصائم المتطوع أمير نفسه إن شاء صام وإن شاء أفطر ولا قضاء عليه وكذلك سائر التطوع إلا الحج والعمرة فإنه يجب إتمامهما وقضاء ما أفسد منهما.

ونهى رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم عن صوم يومين: يوم الفطر ويوم الأضحى ونهى عن صوم أيام التشريق إلا أنه خصى رخص في صومهما للمتمتع إذا لم يجد الهدي وليلة القدر في الوتر من العشر الأواخر من رمضان

العمدة في الفقه كتاب الصيام باب صيام التطوع

Success comes from Allah, and Allah knows best.