By Abu Amina Elias for FaithinAllah.org
In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful
Ibn Qudamah writes in his book Umdat fil Fiqh:
Breaking the fast during Ramadan is permissible for four types of people.
First, an ill person who would be harmed by fasting and the traveler who is permitted to shorten the prayer. It is preferred for them to break the fast and they should make up the days they did not fast, but if they fast it will be valid.
Second, a menstruating woman and one who has postpartum bleeding. They should break their fast and make up the days they did not fast. If they fast, it will not be valid.
Third, a pregnant woman and one who is breastfeeding. If they fear they will be harmed, they should break their fast and make up the days they did not fast. If they fear their unborn children will be harmed, they should break their fast and make up the days they did not fast or feed one poor person per day.
Fourth, the person who is incapable of fasting due to old age or an incurable disease. In this case, they should feed one poor person per day.
As for the rest who break their fast, they should make up the days they did not fast, except for someone who broke his fast by having intercourse. In this case, he must make up the day and also free a slave. If he cannot do that, he should fast for two consecutive months. If he cannot do that, he should feed sixty poor people. If he cannot do any of those, then the burden is lifted from him. If he had intercourse and did not expiate it before he had intercourse again, then only one expiation is due on him. If he performed expiation and had intercourse a second time, then a second expiation is obligatory upon him.
Anyone who is required to abstain from what nullifies fasting in Ramadan and has intercourse should perform expiation.
If one delays making up the days not fasted until the next Ramadan arrives, and he has an excuse, then nothing is required of him except to make them up. If he has procrastinated without an excuse, then he should feed one poor person per day. If he deferred making up the fasts until he died, then there is nothing required of him. If it was without an excuse, then one poor person should be fed each day on his behalf, unless his obligatory fasting was because of a vow, in which case someone should fast on his behalf. Likewise is the ruling for performing expiation on behalf of those who made vows to do righteous deeds.
Source: Umdat fil Fiqh
ويباح الفطر في رمضان لأربعة أقسام
أحدها المريض الذي يتضرر به والمسافر الذي له القصر فالفطر لهما أفضل وعليهما القضاء وإن صاما أجزأهما
الثاني الحائض والنفساء تفطران وتقضيان وإن صامتا لم يجزئهما
الثالث الحامل والمرضع إذا خافتا على أنفسهما أفطرتا وقضتا وإن خافتا على ولديهما أفطرتا وقضتا وأطعمتا عن كل يوم مسكينا
الرابع العاجر عن الصيام لكبر أو مرض لا يرجى برؤه فإنه يطعم عن كل يوم مسكينا
وعلى سائر من أفطر القضاء لا غير إلا من أفطر بجماع في الفرج فإنه يقضي ويعتق رقبة فإن لم يجد فصيام شهرين متتابعين فإن لم يستطع فإطعام ستين مسكينا فإن لم يجد سقطت عنه فإن جامع ولم يكفر حتى جامع ثانية فكفارة واحدة وإن كفر ثم جامع فكفارة ثانية وكل من لزمه الإمساك في رمضان فجامع فعليه كفارة
ومن أخر القضاء لعذر حتى أدرك رمضان آخر فليس عليه غير القضاء وإن فرط أطعم مع القضاء لكل يوم مسكينا
وإن ترك القضاء حتى مات لعذر فلا شيء عليه وإن كان لغير عذر أطعم عنه لكل يوم مسكينا إلا أن يكون الصوم منذورا فإنه يصام عنه وكذلك كل نذر طاعة
العمدة في الفقه كتاب الصيام باب أحكام المفطرين في رمضان
Success comes from Allah, and Allah knows best.