Ibn Qudamah on the Beginning of Ramadan

July 16, 2013


By Abu Amina Elias for FaithinAllah.org

In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful

Ibn Qudamah writes in his book Umdat fil Fiqh:

Fasting the month of Ramadan is an obligation upon every Muslim who is sane, adult, and capable. A child should be ordered to fast if he can tolerate it.

Fasting becomes obligatory when one of three things occur: the completion of the thirty days of the month of Sha’ban, the sighting of the crescent moon, or the presence of clouds on the thirtieth night of Sha’ban that prevents its sighting.

If one Muslim alone sees the crescent, he should fast. If he is trustworthy, people should fast based upon his statement and they should not break the fast at the end of Ramadan unless it is based upon the testimony of two trustworthy individuals. He should not break the fast if he sees the moon by himself.

If they fasted the month of Ramadan based upon the testimony of two individuals, for thirty days, then they should break their fast. If they started the month in the presence of a cloudy sky or based upon the statement of one individual, then they should not break their fast until they either see the moon or it has completed the full period.

If a captive is confused regarding the months, he should do his best to figure it out and fast. If his fasting coincided with the month or started after it, his fasting would be valid, but if he started fasting before it, it would not be valid.

Source: Umdat fil Fiqh

يجب صيام رمضان على كل مسلم بالغ عاقل قادر على الصوم ويؤمر به الصبي إذا أطاقه

ويجب بأحد ثلاثة أشياء كمال شعبان ورؤية هلال رمضان ووجود غيم أو قتر ليلة الثلاثين يحول دونه

وإذا رأى الهلال وحده صام فإن كان عدلا صام الناس بقوله ولا يفطر إلا بشهادة عدلين ولا يفطر إذا رآه وحده

وإن صاموا بشهادة اثنين ثلاثون يوما أفطروا وإن كان بغيم أو قول واحد لم يفطروا إلا أن يروه أو يكملوا العدة

وإذا اشتبهت الأشهر على الأسير تحرى وصام فإن وافق الشهر أو ما بعده أجزأه وإن وافق قبله لم يجزه

العمدة في الفقه كتاب الصيام

Success comes from Allah, and Allah knows best.