Ibn Qudamah on Prescribed Charity, Az-Zakat

August 27, 2013

Umdat-fi-Al-Fiqh-Ibn-Qudamah

By Abu Amina Elias for FaithinAllah.org

In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful

Ibn Qudamah writes in his book Umdat fil Fiqh:

Alms (zakat) must be paid by every free Muslim who has complete ownership of the minimum amount.

There are no alms on property until an entire lunar year has passed, except for that which comes from the land and the growth of capital through livestock or profit. The period of time for these is their origin.

Alma is obligatory on four types of wealth:

  1. Free-grazing, domesticated livestock.
  2. Growth from the land.
  3. Silver and gold.
  4. Merchandise prepared for sale.

There are no alms until any of this reaches the minimum amount. If the value reaches or exceeds the minimum amount, then alms is obligatory on the full amount, except for livestock for which there is nothing obligatory on that which falls between the two amounts (i.e. the obligatory amount upon thirty or more cows will be the same until the owner has forty cows).

It is not permissible to delay paying alms until after it has become an obligation if one is capable of paying it. If one has delayed payment and the property has become lost, then the payment will not be nullified. However, if the property is lost before the time of obligation has arrived, then the payment will be nullified.

It is permissible to pay alms early if the minimum amount has been reached, but it is not permissible before that. If one pays it early to someone who does not deserve it, then it will not count even if that person becomes a worthy recipient on the due date. If one pays it early to someone who deserves it and then that person dies or no longer needs it or becomes an apostate, then it will still count for him. However, if his property is lost after he paid alms, then he cannot ask for it back from the person who received it.

It is not permissible to transport charity to a faraway place such that it becomes permissible to shorten the prayer, unless he cannot find anyone eligible to receive it in his own country.

There are eight categories of people eligible to receive alms:

  1. The poor. They are those who cannot afford whatever they need by working or otherwise.
  2. The needy. They are those who cannot afford only some of their needs.
  3. The collectors. They are those who are needed to collect alms.
  4. Those whose hearts are to be reconciled. They are the authorities within their tribes whose evil may be repelled or whose faith may be strengthened by giving them alms, or it is hoped it will prevent them from harming the Muslims, or who may help collect alms from those who are withholding it.
  5. Slaves. They are indentured servants and may be emancipated.
  6. The indebted. They are those who have borrowed money as payment for lawful items or two reconcile two Muslim parties.
  7. In defense of the cause of Allah. They are the unpaid soldiers who are not part of a regular army.
  8. The traveler. They are those who lack the means to return home, even if he is wealthy in his own land.

These are those who are eligible to receive alms and it is not permissible to give it to others.

It is permissible to pay it to only one of them since the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, instructed Bani Zuraiq to pay alms to Salamah ibn Sakhr and the Prophet said to Qubaisa:

أقم يا قبيصة حتى تأتينا الصدقة فنأمر لك بها

O Qubaisa, wait until we receive charity and then we will give it to you.

The poor and the needy are to be given what is sufficient for their needs. The collector is to be given a fair compensation for his work. The one to be reconciled is given what will reconcile him. The indentured servant and the indebted are to be given what they need to pay what is due upon them. The soldier is to be given what is needed to perform his duty. The traveler is to be given enough for him to return to his country. None of them may be given more than this.

Five of these categories do not take anything unless it is needed. They are the poor, the needy, the indentured servant, the indebted, and the traveler.

It is permissible to give alms to four of these categories even if they are not in need. They are the collector, the one to be reconciled, the soldier, and the indebted.

It is not permissible for charity to be given to someone who is wealthy, strong, and able to work. It is also not permissible for the household of Muhammad, peace and blessings be upon him, which is Bani Hashim and their emancipated slaves.

It is not permissible to pay obligatory alms to one’s parents, grandparents, children, grandchildren, those from whom he is responsible, or to the unbelievers. However, voluntary charity may be given to such people and to others.

It is only permissible to pay alms with an intention unless the ruler has taken it by force.

If one has paid alms to someone who is not deserving, then it is not valid unless it is paid to someone who is self-sufficient but whom the donor mistakenly thought was poor.

Source: Umdat fil Fiqh

وهي واجبة على كل مسلم حر ملك نصابا ملكا تاما

ولا زكاة في مال حتى يحول عليه الحول إلا في الخارج من الأرض ونماء النصب من النتاج والربح فإن حولهما حول أصلهما

ولا تجب الزكاة إلا في أربعة أنواع السائمة من بهيمة الأنعام والخارج من الأرض والأثمان وعروض التجارة

ولا زكاة في شيء من ذلك حتى يبلغ نصابا وتجب فيما زاد على النصاب بحسابه إلا السائمة فلا شيء في أوقاصها

باب إخراج الزكاة

لا يجوز تأخيرها عن وقت وجوبها إذا أمكن إخراجها فإن فعل فتلف المال لم تسقط عنه الزكاة وإن تلف قبله سقطت ويجوز تعجيلها إذا كمل النصاب ولا يجوز قبل ذلك فإن عجلها إلى غير مستحقها لم يجزئه وإن صار عند الوجوب من أهلها

وإن دفعها إلى مستحقها فمات أو استغنى أو ارتد أجزأت عنه وإن تلف المال لم يرجع على الآخذ

ولا تنقل الصدقة إلى بلد تقصر إليه الصلاة إلا أن لا يجد من يأخذها في بلدها

باب من يجوز دفع الزكاة إليه

وهم ثمانية

الأول الفقراء وهم الذين لا يجدون ما يقع موقعا من كفايتهم بكسب ولا غيره

الثاني المساكين وهم الذين يجدون ذلك ولا يجدون تمام الكفاية

الثالث العاملون عليها وهم السعاة عليها ومن يحتاج إليه فيها

الرابع المؤلفة قلوبهم، وهم السادة المطاعون في عشائرهم الذين يرجى بعطيتهم دفع شرهم أو قوة إيمانهم أو دفعهم عن المسلمين أو إعانتهم على أخذ الزكاة ممن يمتنع من دفعها

الخامس الرقاب وهم المكاتبون وأعتاق الرقيق

السادس الغارمون وهم المدينون لإصلاح نفوسهم في مباح أو لإصلاح بين طائفتين من المسلمين

السابع في سبيل الله وهم الغزاة الذين لا ديوان لهم

الثامن ابن السبيل وهو المسافر المنقطع به وإن كان ذا يسار في بلده

فهؤلاء هم أهل الزكاة لا يجوز دفعها إلى غيرهم ويجوز دفعها إلى واحد منهم لأنه صلى الله عليه وسلم أمر بني زريق بدفع صدقتهم إلى سلمة بن صخر وقال لقبيصة أقم يا قبيصة حتى تأتينا الصدقة فنأمر لك بها

ويدفع إلى الفقير والمسكين ما تتم به كفايته وإلى العامل قدر عمالته وإلى المؤلف ما يحصل به تأليفه وإلى المكاتب والغارم ما يقضي به دينه وإلى الغازي ما يحتاج إليه لغزوه وإلى ابن السبيل ما يوصله إلى بلده ولا يزاد واحد منهم على ذلك

وخمسة منهم لا يأخذون إلا مع الحاجة وهم الفقير والمسكين والمكاتب والغارم لنفسه وابن السبيل أربعة يجوز الدفع إليهم مع الغني وهم العامل والمؤلف والغازي والغارم لإصلاح ذات البين

باب من لا يجوز دفع الزكاة إليه

لا تحل الصدقة لغني ولا لقوي مكتسب ولا تحل لآل محمد صلى الله عليه وسلم وهم بنو هاشم مواليهم ولا يجوز دفعها إلى الوالدين وإن علوا ولا إلى الولد وإن سفل ولا من تلزمه مؤنته ولا إلى كافر

فأما صدقة التطوع فيجوز دفعها إلى هؤلاء وإلى غيرهم

ولا يجوز دفع الزكاة إلا بنية إلا أن يأخذها الإمام قهرا

وإذا دفع الزكاة إلى غير مستحقها لم يجزه إلا الغني إذا ظنه فقيرا

العمدة في الفقه كتاب الزكاة

Success comes from Allah, and Allah knows best.