Ibn Qudamah on Prescribed Prayer, As-Salat

March 25, 2012

Umdat-fi-Al-Fiqh-Ibn-Qudamah2

By Abu Amina Elias for FaithinAllah.org

In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful

Ibn Qudamah writes in his book Umdat fil Fiqh:

Ubadah ibn As-Samit reported: The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, said:

خَمْسُ صَلَوَاتٍ افْتَرَضَهُنَّ اللَّهُ تَعَالَى مَنْ أَحْسَنَ وُضُوءَهُنَّ وَصَلَّاهُنَّ لِوَقْتِهِنَّ وَأَتَمَّ رُكُوعَهُنَّ وَخُشُوعَهُنَّ كَانَ لَهُ عَلَى اللَّهِ عَهْدٌ أَنْ يَغْفِرَ لَهُ وَمَنْ لَمْ يَفْعَلْ فَلَيْسَ لَهُ عَلَى اللَّهِ عَهْدٌ إِنْ شَاءَ غَفَرَ لَهُ وَإِنْ شَاءَ عَذَّبَهُ

Allah the Exalted has made the five prayers an obligation. Whoever performs their ablution well, prays them at their proper time, and completes their bowing and their reverence due, then Allah has promised to forgive him. Whoever does not do so has no promise from Allah. If He wills, He will forgive him, or if He wills, He will punish Him.

Source: Sunan Abu Dawud 425, Grade: Sahih

Therefore, the five prayers (as-salat) are an obligation upon every sane, adult Muslim, except for the menstruating woman or the woman having postpartum bleeding. Whoever rejects its obligation out of ignorance should be educated about it. If he rejects it out of stubbornness, he becomes a disbeliever.

It is not permissible to delay it beyond its mandated time except for one who intends to combine it with another prayer or one who is busy fulfilling its conditions.

When the worshiper stands ready to perform the prayer, he should say:

الله أكبر

Allah is Greater.

The prayer leader must pronounce this, and every other takbeer (saying Allahu Akbar) in a loud voice, so that it can be heard by those behind him.

When pronouncing the initial takbir, the worshipper should raise his hands to the level of his shoulders, or to the lobes of his ears. He should then place his hands above his navel, fix his gaze on the place of prostration, and say:

سبحانك اللهم وبحمدك وتبارك اسمك وتعالى جدك ولا إله غيرك

Glory be to You, O Allah, and praise. Blessed is Your name, and exalted is Your Majesty. There is no God besides You.

Then he should say:

أعوذ بالله من الشيطان الرجيم

I seek refuge in Allah from the cursed Satan.

Then he should say:

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful

He should not pronounce any of that in a loud voice, because of the saying of Anas:

صليت خلف النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم وأبي بكر وعمر وعثمان فلم أسمع أحدا منهم يجهر ببسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

I prayed behind the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, and Abu Bakr, Umar, and Uthman, and I did not hear any of them pronounce the bismillah (saying “In the Name of Allah”) in a loud voice.

Next, he must recite the opening chapter of the Quran (surah al-fatihah). No ritual prayer is credited to someone who fails to recite it, with the exception of one who follows the leader, for the leader’s recitation is a recitation on his behalf. He is recommended to recite during the leader’s moment of silence, and when his voice is inaudible.

Next, he should recite another chapter. In the morning prayer, this should be chosen from among the long chapters in the final section of the Quran; in the sunset prayer, from among the short ones; and in other prayers, from among those of medium length. The leader should recite in a loud voice in the morning prayer, and in the first two cycles of the sunset and evening prayers, but his recitation should otherwise be inaudible.

Next he should pronounce takbir while raising his hands as he raised them the first time, then assume the ruku’ (bowing posture), by placing his hands on his knees, spreading his fingers, stretching his back and pointing his head to the front. While holding this posture, he should say three times:

سبحان ربي العظيم

Glory to my Lord, the Almighty.

He must then raise his head and his hands as before, while saying:

سمع الله لمن حمده

Allah hears and accept the praise of one who praises Him.

Then, while standing in an upright posture, he should say:

ربنا لك الحمد ملء السموات وملء الأرض وملء ما شئت من شيء

Our Lord, to You is the praise, enough to fill the heavens and the earth, and enough to fill anything beyond them, as You will.

The follower should restrict himself to the expression:

ربنا لك الحمد

Our Lord, to You is the praise.

Next, he must pronounce takbir without raising his hands, and sink to the ground in prostration. The first parts of him to touch the ground should be his knees, then the palms of his hands, then his forehead and his nose. He should keep his upper arms away from his sides, and his stomach away from his thighs. He should place his hands opposite his shoulders, and he should be on tiptoe. While holding this posture, he should say:

سبحان ربي الأعلى

Glory to my Lord, the Most High.

He must then raise his head, while pronouncing the takbir, and sit with his left foot spread horizontally, while placing his right leg so that the right foot is in a perpendicular position, with the heel raised, and so that his toes are pointing to the direction of prayer. While sitting in this position, he should say:

ربي اغفر لي

My Lord, forgive me.

Next, he must perform the act of prostration a second time, in the same manner as the first. Then he must raise his head from the ground, while pronouncing takbir, stand in an upright posture, and proceed to perform the second raka’a (cycle) of the prayer in the same manner as the first. As soon as he has completed both cycles, he must sit with his feet spread horizontally in order to perform the tashahhud (testimony). He should place his left hand on his left thigh, and his right hand on his right thigh, hold the little finger and the ring finger in the grip of his hand, join the thumb and the ring finger to form a circle, and point several times with the index finger, while saying:

التحيات لله والصلوات والطيبات السلام عليك أيها النبي ورحمة الله وبركاته السلام علينا وعلى عباد الله الصالحين اشهد أن لا الله إلا الله وأشهد أن محمدا عبده ورسوله

Greetings, prayers, and good deeds are due to Allah. Peace be upon you, O Prophet, and the mercy of Allah and His Blessings. Peace be upon us, and upon the righteous servants of Allah. I bear witness that there is no God but Allah, and I bear witness that Muhammad is His servant and messenger.

This is the most authentic version of the testimony reported on the authority of the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him. Then, he must say:

اللهم صل على محمد وعلى آل محمد كما صليت على إبراهيم وآل إبراهيم إنك حميد مجيد وبارك على محمد وعلى آل محمد كما باركت على إبراهيم وآل إبراهيم إنك حميد مجيد

O Allah, bestow grace upon Muhammad and the family of Muhammad just as you have bestowed grace upon Abraham and the family of Abraham. O Allah, bless Muhammad and the family of Muhammad, just as you have blessed Abraham and the family of Abraham. Surely, You deserve praise and exaltation.

It is also recommended for him to seek refuge from the torment of the grave and the torment of Hell, from the mischief of life and death, and from the mischief of Al-Masih Ad-Dajjal (the false Messiah). He must then pronounce the taslima (salutation of peace), first to his right and then to his left, saying:

السلام عليكم ورحمة الله

Peace be upon you, and the mercy of Allah.

If the ritual prayer consists of more than two cycles, he must stand up after the first testimony in the same manner as his standing up from prostration. He must then perform the remaining cycles without reciting anything in them after Surah Al-Fatihah.

When he sits for the final testimony, he should adopt the posture called tawarruk, by placing his right leg so that his right foot is in a perpendicular position, spreading his left foot horizontally and causing both feet to protrude from his right side. He should only adopt this posture in a prayer containing two testimonies, and only in the last of the two. As soon as he has pronounced the salutation of peace, he should seek forgiveness three times, and say:

اللَّهُمَّ أَنْتَ السَّلاَمُ وَمِنْكَ السَّلاَمُ تَبَارَكْتَ ذَا الْجَلاَلِ وَالإِكْرَامِ ‏

O Allah, You are peace, and from You comes peace Blessed are You, O Lord of Majesty and Honor.

Source: Sahih Muslim 592, Grade: Sahih

In summary, the basic pillars of the prayer are twelve:

  • Standing in an upright position, provided one is capable.
  • The consecratory affirmation of Allah’s greatness (takbir).
  • The recitation of Surah Al-Fatihah.
  • The bowing (ruku’).
  • Rising from bowing.
  • The prostration (sujud).
  • Sitting back from prostration.
  • Calm composure in the performance of these pillars.
  • The final testimony (tashahhud).
  • Adopting the sitting posture during the testimony.
  • The salutation of peace (taslim).
  • Their performance in the order we have described above.

The ritual prayer is not complete without these essential pillars. Its necessary elements (wajibat) are seven:

  • The affirmation of Allah’s greatness (takbir).
  • The glorification of the Lord (tasbih) each time one adopts the postures of bowing and prostration.
  • Acknowledging that Allah hears (tasmi’) and deserves praise (tahmid).
  • Asking Allah for forgiveness between the two prostrations.
  • The first testimony (tashahhud).
  • Adopting the sitting posture during the first testimony.
  • The invocation of blessings upon the Prophet, peace be upon him, during the final testimony.

If these necessary elements are omitted with deliberate intent, the worshipers’ ritual prayer is nullified. If he omits one of them due to having an absent mind, he must perform an act of prostration to make up for its omission. Other elements of the prayer are customary practices (sunan), so the ritual prayer is not nullified by their deliberate omission, and their omission due to having an absent mind does not necessitate a make-up prostration.

Source: Umdat fil Fiqh

روى عبادة بن الصامت رضي الله عنه قال سمعت رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم يقول خمس صلوات كتبهن الله على العباد في اليوم والليلة فمن حافظ عليهن كان له عهد عند الله أن يدخله الجنة ومن لم يحافظ عليهن لم يكن له عند الله عهد إن شاء عذبه وإن شاء غفر له

فالصلوات الخمس واجبة على كل مسلم بالغ عاقل إلا الحائض والنفساء، فمن جحد وجوبها لجهله عرف ذلك وإن جحدها عنادا كفر

ولا يحل تأخيرها عن وقت وجوبها إلا لناو جمعها أو مشتغل بشرطها

وإذا قام إلى الصلاة قال الله أكبر يجهر بها الإمام وبسائر التكبير ليسمع من خلفه ويخفيه غيره ويرفع يديه عند ابتداء التكبير إلى حذو منكبيه أو إلى فروع أذنيه ويجعلهما تحت سرته ويجعل بصره إلى موضع سجوده ثم يقول سبحانك اللهم وبحمدك وتبارك اسمك وتعالى جدك ولا إله غيرك ثم يقول أعوذ بالله من الشيطان الرجيم ثم يقول بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم ولا يجهر بشيء من ذلك لقول أنس صليت خلف النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم وأبي بكر وعمر وعثمان فلم أسمع أحدا منهم يجهر ببسم الله الرحمن الرحيم ثم يقرأ الفاتحة ولا صلاة لمن يقرأ بها إلا المأموم فإن قراءة الإمام له قراءة، ويستحب أن يقرأ في سكتات الإمام وفيما لا يجهر فيه ثم يقرأ بسورة تكون في الصبح من طوال المفصل وفي المغرب من قصاره وفي سائر الصلوات من أوسطه ويجهر الإمام بالقراءة في الصبح والأولين من المغرب والعشاء ويسر فيما عدا ذلك ثم يكبر ويركع ويرفع يديه كرفعه الأول ثم يضع يديه على ركبتيه ويفرج أصابعه ويمد ظهره ويجعل رأسه حياله ثم يقول سبحان ربي العظيم ثلاثا ثم يرفع رأسه قائلا سمع الله لمن حمده ويرفع يديه كرفعه الأول فإذا اعتدل قائما قال ربنا لك الحمد ملء السموات وملء الأرض وملء ما شئت من شيء بعد ويقصر المأموم على قول ربنا ولك الحمد ثم يخر ساجدا مكبرا ولا يرفع يديه ويكون أول ما يقع على الأرض منه ركبتاه ثم كفاه ثم جبهته وأنفه ويجافي عضديه عن جنبيه وبطنه عن فخذيه ويجعل يديه حذو منكبيه ويكون على أطراف قدميه ثم يقول سبحان ربي الأعلى ثلاثا يرفع رأسه مكبرا ويجلس مفترشا فيفرش رجله اليسرى ويجلس عليها وينصب اليمنى ويثني أصابعها نحو القبلة ويقول ربي اغفر لي ثلاثا ثم يسجد الثانية كالأولى ثم يرفع رأسه مكبرا وينهض قائما فيصلي الثانية كالأولى فإذا فرغ منهما جلس للتشهد مفترشا ويضع يده اليسرى على فخذه اليسرى ويده اليمنى على فخذه اليمنى ويقبض منها الخنصر والبنصر ويحلق الإبهام مع الوسطى ويشير بالسبابة في تشهده مرارا ويقول التحيات لله والصلوات والطيبات السلام عليك أيها النبي ورحمة الله وبركاته السلام علينا وعلى عباد الله الصالحين اشهد أن لا الله إلا الله وأشهد أن محمدا عبده ورسوله فهذا اصح ما روي عن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم في التشهد ثم يقول اللهم صل على محمد وعلى آل محمد كما صليت على إبراهيم وآل إبراهيم إنك حميد مجيد وبارك على محمد وعلى آل محمد كما باركت على إبراهيم وآل إبراهيم إنك حميد مجيد ويستحب أن يتعوذ من عذاب جهنم ومن عذاب القبر ومن فتنة المحيا والممات ومن فتنة المسيح الدجال ثم يسلم عن يمينه السلام عليكم ورحمة الله وعن يساره كذلك

وإن كانت الصلاة أكثر من ركعتين نهض بعد التشهد الأول كنهوضه من السجود ثم يصلي ركعتين لا يقرأ فيهما بعد الفاتحة شيئا فإذا جلس للتشهد الأخير تورك فنصب رجله اليمنى وفرش اليسرى وأخرجها عن يمينه ولا يتورك إلا في صلاة فيها تشهدان في الأخير منهما فإذا سلم استغفر الله ثلاثا وقال اللهم أنت السلام ومنك السلام تباركت يا ذا الجلال والإكرام

أركانها اثنا عشر القيام مع القدرة وتكبيرة الإحرام وقراءة الفاتحة والركوع والرفع منه والسجود على السبعة الأعضاء والجلوس عنه والطمأنينة في هذه الأركان والتشهد الأخير والجلوس له والتسليمة الأولى وترتيبها على ما ذكرناه فهذه الأركان لا تتم الصلاة إلا بها

وواجباتها سبعة التكبير غير تكبيرة الإحرام والتسبيح في الركوع والسجود مرة مرة والتسبيح والتحميد في الرفع من الركوع وقول ربي اغفر لي بين السجدتين والتشهد الأول والجلوس له والصلاة على النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم في التشهد الأخير فهذه إن تركها عمدا بطلت صلاته وإن تركها سهوا سجد لها وما عدا هذا فسنن لا تبطل الصلاة بعمدها ولا يجب السجود لسهوها

العمدة في الفقه باب صفة الصلاة

Success comes from Allah, and Allah knows best.