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Ibn Al-Qayyim on three types of hearts

April 4, 2015

Ighathatul Lahfan fi Masayid ash-Shaytan Ibn Al-Qayyim

By Abu Amina Elias

In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful

Ibn Al-Qayyim writes in his book Ighathatul Lahfan fi Masayid ash-Shaytan:

Since the heart is described as possessing life or death, it has been classified into three types: the sound heart, the dead heart, and the diseased heart.

The sound heart

This is the pure heart. It is the only type of heart that a person can bring to Allah on the Day of Judgment which will rescue him. Allah the Exalted said:

يَوْمَ لَا يَنفَعُ مَالٌ وَلَا بَنُونَ إِلَّا مَنْ أَتَى اللَّهَ بِقَلْبٍ سَلِيمٍ

On the day none will benefit from wealth or children, but only him who comes to Allah with a pure heart.

Surat Ash-Shu’ara 26:88-89

The meaning of “pure” (saleem) is one who is secure. It has come in this form because it depicts an innate attribute. As such it is grammatically like the words tall, short, and graceful.

The one whose heart is described as pure is characterized so because this is attribute of truthfulness and soundness has become its constant and established quality. In this respect it is like the terms “one who knows” (‘aleem) and “one who has power” (qadeer). It is also the opposite of diseased, sick, and ailing.

People have described the sound and truthful heart in different ways. However, they all revolve around the same basic concept: it is that which is secure from every carnal desire that opposes the commands and prohibitions of Allah. It is secure from every doubt and uncertainty that would obscure or oppose His words. It is secure from displaying servitude to anything other than Him, just as it is secure from seeking a ruling from anyone other than His Messenger, peace and blessings be upon him. It becomes sound through loving Allah and seeking the ruling of His Messenger. It becomes sound through showing Him fear, hope, trust and reliance, repentance, and humility. It prefers what pleases Him in every circumstance and distances itself from everything that would displease Him in any possible way. This is the reality of servitude which can only be directed to Allah alone.

Therefore, the truthful and sound heart is that heart which is secure from committing any form of idolatry and instead its servitude is directed only to Allah the Exalted and purely for His sake. Its desire, love, trust and reliance, repentance, humility, fear, and hope is only for Allah and its actions are purely for His sake. If it loves, it loves for the sake of Allah. If it hates, it hates for the sake of Allah. If it gives, it gives for the sake of Allah. If it withholds, it withholds for the sake of Allah.

Yet this alone does not suffice until the heart becomes secure from referring and submitting to anyone else besides the Messenger of Allah for judgment. Thus, the heart ties a firm bond with him, resolving to follow him and obey him alone in sayings and deeds. These sayings consist of the sayings of the heart, the matters of faith, and the sayings of the tongue which conveys what is in the heart. These actions consist of the actions of the heart, its desire, love, hate, and other related matters, and the actions of the limbs.

As such, the judge for all these matters, the major and minor of them, is that with which the Messenger of Allah came. The heart does not put itself before him in any matter related to belief, saying, or action. Allah the Exalted said:

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَا تُقَدِّمُوا بَيْنَ يَدَيِ اللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ ۖ وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ سَمِيعٌ عَلِيمٌ

O you who believe, do not advance ahead Allah and His Messenger. Fear Allah, for Allah is hearing and knowing.

Surat Al-Hujurat 49:1

Meaning, do not speak of a matter until he has spoken of it and do not act until he has commanded regarding it.

Some of the righteous predecessors said, “There is no action, even if it is small, except that two records will be unfurled for it: why and how?” meaning why did you do it and how did you do it?

The first question inquires about the cause, onset, and motive of the action. Was it done for some temporary and worldly gain such as attaining the praise of people? Was it done out of fear of the people’s censure? Or was the motivation of this action from the rights of worship, seeking an increase in the love and nearness to Allah the Exalted and drawing close to Him? The essence of this question is this: did you perform this action for the sake of your Master or for the sake of personal gains and desires?

The second question inquires about following the Messenger of Allah in that action of worship. Was the action you did from those actions which have been legislated upon the tongue of My Messenger? Or was it an action that I did not legislate and am not pleased with?

The first question concerns sincerity and the second concerns following the Messenger. Allah does not accept any action until both of these conditions are met. The method of absolution from the first question is to purify one’s sincerity such that it is for Allah alone. The method of absolution from the second question is to actualize the following of the Messenger and by securing the heart from any intent that would impair its sincerity and any base desire that would impair its following the Messenger.

This is the reality of the pure heart from which ensues victory and happiness.

The dead heart

This is the heart that contains no life. It does not know its Lord and it does not worship Him by complying with His commands and doing that which He loves and with which He is pleased. Rather, it is a slave to its carnal desires, temptations, and pleasures, oblivious and indifferent to whether they lead to the displeasure and anger of its Lord or not. It worships other than Allah, directing its love, hope, pleasure, glorification, and submission to other than Him. If it loves, it loves for the sake of its desires. If it hates, it hates for the sake of its desires. If it gives, it gives for the sake of its desires. If it withholds, it withholds for the sake of its desires. It gives preference to its base desires as these are more beloved to it than the pleasure of its Master.

Desires are its leader, lusts are its commander, ignorance is its driving force, and negligence is the vessel upon which it embarks. It is completely engrossed in pursuing its worldly desires. It is driven wild by the intoxication of its pleasures and the love of temporal things. It hears the call to Allah and the abode of the Hereafter from a distant place and does not respond to its sincere adviser. It follows every cunning devil and the world is the cause of its anger and its pleasure. Desires have deafened and blinded it to anything other than falsehood. In this world, it is like that which the poet said concerning the man lovestruck with Layla, “An enemy to whosoever she displays enmity, at peace with those she loves. Whoever she draws close to, he will likewise love and draw close to.”

Mixing with the person who has this heart is sickness, interacting with him is poison, and sitting with him is ruin.

The diseased heart

This is the heart that contains life but also possesses a defect. It has two urges calling to it: one leading to life and the other leading to death. It follows whichever one happens to predominate. It contains love for Allah the Exalted, faith in Him, sincerity to Him, and trust and reliance upon Him. Those matters are essential to its life. It also contains the love of its carnal desires, giving preference to them, and eagerness to fulfill them. It contains envy, arrogance, conceit, and love of rank and leadership. Those matters necessarily lead to its destruction and ruin. It is constantly being tried by two callers: one calling it to Allah, His Messenger, and the abode of the Hereafter, and the other calling it to temporal, worldly matters. It responds to the one that is closest and most influential at the time.

The first type of heart is the living, humble, soft, attentive, and heedful heart. The second type is the brittle, dry, and dead heart. The third type is the diseased heart, either moving closer to its salvation or destruction.

Allah the Exalted mentioned these three types of hearts in His saying:

وَمَا أَرْسَلْنَا مِن قَبْلِكَ مِن رَّسُولٍ وَلَا نَبِيٍّ إِلَّا إِذَا تَمَنَّىٰ أَلْقَى الشَّيْطَانُ فِي أُمْنِيَّتِهِ فَيَنسَخُ اللَّهُ مَا يُلْقِي الشَّيْطَانُ ثُمَّ يُحْكِمُ اللَّهُ آيَاتِهِ ۗ وَاللَّهُ عَلِيمٌ حَكِيمٌ لِّيَجْعَلَ مَا يُلْقِي الشَّيْطَانُ فِتْنَةً لِّلَّذِينَ فِي قُلُوبِهِم مَّرَضٌ وَالْقَاسِيَةِ قُلُوبُهُمْ ۗ وَإِنَّ الظَّالِمِينَ لَفِي شِقَاقٍ بَعِيدٍ وَلِيَعْلَمَ الَّذِينَ أُوتُوا الْعِلْمَ أَنَّهُ الْحَقُّ مِن رَّبِّكَ فَيُؤْمِنُوا بِهِ فَتُخْبِتَ لَهُ قُلُوبُهُمْ ۗ وَإِنَّ اللَّهَ لَهَادِ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا إِلَىٰ صِرَاطٍ مُّسْتَقِيمٍ

We did not send before you any messenger or prophet except that when he spoke, Satan threw into it some misunderstanding. But Allah abolishes that which Satan throws in, then Allah makes precise His verses, for Allah is knowing and wise. That is so He may make what Satan throws in a trial for those within whose hearts is a disease and those hard of heart. Verily, the wrongdoers are in extreme dissension. And so those who were given knowledge may know that it is the truth from your Lord and believe in it and their hearts humbly submit to it. Verily, Allah is the guide to a straight path for those who believe.

Surat Al-Hajj 22:52-54

In these verses, Allah the Exalted has mentioned two types of hearts put to trial and one type that is victorious. The two types of hearts that are put to trial are the diseased heart and the harsh heart. The victorious heart is the heart of the believer that is humble before its Lord. It is at rest and satisfaction with Him, submissive and obedient to Him.

It is desired of the heart and other limbs that they be healthy and sound, having no defect so that they can do that which agrees with their nature and fulfills the purpose for which they were created. The heart’s stepping stone outside the bounds of steadfastness to obedience could either be due to its dryness and harshness, or the absence of doing that which is desired of it. In this respect it is like a mute tongue or an eye that cannot see due to some illness or defect.

This is why the hearts have been classified into three types:

  1. The healthy and sound heart which contains no impediment preventing it from accepting the truth, loving it, and giving it preference. Its understanding of the truth is correct and it accepts it with complete submission.
  2. The dead, harsh, and dry heart that does not accept the truth or submit to it.
  3. The diseased heart, when its disease predominates it, joins the ranks of the dead and harsh heart. But if its soundness predominates, it joins the ranks of the truthful and sound heart.

Anything that is directed to the person by Satan such as his making him hear certain words or suggestions in the heart such as suspicion and doubt act as a trial for the latter two types of hearts and serve to further strengthen the living, truthful, and sound heart.

This is because the living heart rejects all of this, dislikes it, and is offended by it for it knows that the truth opposes it. Rather, it submits to the truth and is content with it. It knows the fallacy of that with which Satan has tempted it and thereby increases its certainty of the truth, its love of it, and its rejection of falsehood.

However, the heart put to trial remains in doubt and dispute concerning what was directed to it by Satan. The healthy and sound heart, on the other hand, is not harmed by what Satan directs to it.

Hudhaifa reported: The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, said:

تُعْرَضُ الْفِتَنُ عَلَى الْقُلُوبِ كَالْحَصِيرِ عُودًا عُودًا فَأَيُّ قَلْبٍ أُشْرِبَهَا نُكِتَ فِيهِ نُكْتَةٌ سَوْدَاءُ وَأَيُّ قَلْبٍ أَنْكَرَهَا نُكِتَ فِيهِ نُكْتَةٌ بَيْضَاءُ حَتَّى تَصِيرَ عَلَى قَلْبَيْنِ عَلَى أَبْيَضَ مِثْلِ الصَّفَا فَلَا تَضُرُّهُ فِتْنَةٌ مَا دَامَتْ السَّمَاوَاتُ وَالْأَرْضُ وَالْآخَرُ أَسْوَدُ مُرْبَادًّا كَالْكُوزِ مُجَخِّيًا لَا يَعْرِفُ مَعْرُوفًا وَلَا يُنْكِرُ مُنْكَرًا إِلَّا مَا أُشْرِبَ مِنْ هَوَاهُ

Tribulation will be presented to the hearts of people like a reed mat woven stick by stick and any heart afflicted by them will have a black mark put into it, but any heart that rejects them will have a white mark put into it. Thus there will be two kinds of hearts: one is pure like a white gemstone and it will not be harmed by any tribulation as long as the heavens and earth endure, and the other is black and dusty like a worn-out vessel, neither recognizing good nor rejecting evil, but rather immersed in its desires.

Source: Sahih Muslim 144, Grade: Sahih

Hence, the Prophet likened the onset of trials for the heart to knotting the reeds of a mat, one after another. He divided the hearts into two types based upon how they react to these trials:

  1. A heart that absorbs trials when exposed to them in the same way that a sponge soaks in water. It has a black spot form on it and it will continue accepting these trials until it becomes totally black and inverted. This is the meaning of his saying that it is like a worn-out or overturned vessel. Then, when it becomes black and inverted, it is subjugated to the following two dangerous diseases that push it to destruction. First, its confusion of good and evil such that it does not know good or reject evil. It is also possible that its disease deceives a person into believing good to be evil and evil to be good, the prophetic tradition (sunnah) to be innovation (bid’ah) and innovation to be the prophetic tradition, truth to be falsehood and falsehood to be truth. Second, its giving precedence to its base desires when seeking judgment rather than that with which the Messenger came, its yielding to them, and following them.
  2. A white heart that has been set ablaze with the light of faith and its niche has been illuminated. When a trial is presented to it, it rejects it and refutes it and thus its light, illumination, and strength increase.

The trials that are presented to the hearts are the causes of its disease. They are the trials of carnal desires and doubts, the trials of aimless wandering and misguidance, the trials of sins and innovations, and the trials of oppression and ignorance. The trial of desire leads to the corruption of desire and intention, and the trial of doubt leads to the corruption of knowledge and faith.

The companions, may Allah be pleased with them, divided the hearts into four types as is authentically narrated as follows:

Abu Sa’eed reported: The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, said:

الْقُلُوبُ أَرْبَعَةٌ قَلْبٌ أَجْرَدُ فِيهِ مِثْلُ السِّرَاجِ يُزْهِرُ وَقَلْبٌ أَغْلَفُ مَرْبُوطٌ عَلَى غِلَافِهِ وَقَلْبٌ مَنْكُوسٌ وَقَلْبٌ مُصْفَحٌ فَأَمَّا الْقَلْبُ الْأَجْرَدُ فَقَلْبُ الْمُؤْمِنِ سِرَاجُهُ فِيهِ نُورُهُ وَأَمَّا الْقَلْبُ الْأَغْلَفُ فَقَلْبُ الْكَافِرِ وَأَمَّا الْقَلْبُ الْمَنْكُوسُ فَقَلْبُ الْمُنَافِقِ عَرَفَ ثُمَّ أَنْكَرَ وَأَمَّا الْقَلْبُ الْمُصْفَحُ فَقَلْبٌ فِيهِ إِيمَانٌ وَنِفَاقٌ فَمَثَلُ الْإِيمَانِ فِيهِ كَمَثَلِ الْبَقْلَةِ يَمُدُّهَا الْمَاءُ الطَّيِّبُ وَمَثَلُ النِّفَاقِ فِيهِ كَمَثَلِ الْقُرْحَةِ يَمُدُّهَا الْقَيْحُ وَالدَّمُ فَأَيُّ الْمَدَّتَيْنِ غَلَبَتْ عَلَى الْأُخْرَى غَلَبَتْ عَلَيْهِ

The hearts are four kinds: a polished heart as shiny as a radiant lamp, a sealed heart with a knot tied around it, a heart that is turned upside down, and a heart that is wrapped. As for the polished heart, it is the heart of the believer and its lamp is the light of faith. The sealed heart is the heart of the unbeliever. The heart that is turned upside down is the heart of a pure hypocrite, for he had knowledge but he denied it. As for the heart that is wrapped, it is the heart that contains both faith and hypocrisy. The parable of faith in this heart is the parable of the herb that is sustained by pure water, and the parable of the hypocrisy in it is the parable of an ulcer that thrives upon puss and blood; whichever of the two is greater will dominate.

Source: Musnad Ahmad 10745, Grade: Sahih

The meaning of the Prophet’s saying it is a polished heart is that it is a heart that has detached itself from everything besides Allah and His Messenger. It has separated and secured itself from everything except the truth. The meaning of his saying it is as a radiant lamp refers to the light of faith. He indicated by his saying it is polished that it is secure from false doubts and misguiding carnal desires. He indicated by his saying it is as a radiant lamp that it was set ablaze and illuminated by the light of knowledge and faith.

The sealed heart refers to the heart of the disbeliever because it is wrapped by a veil and covering and the light of knowledge and faith cannot reach it. This is as Allah said concerning the Jews:

وَقَالُوا قُلُوبُنَا غُلْفٌ

They say: Our hearts are wrapped.

Surat Al-Baqarah 2:88

This veil is the covering that Allah has placed on their hearts as punishment for their rejecting the truth and being too arrogant to accept it. It is a covering upon their hearts, a seal for their ears, and blindness for their eyes. This is the obscuring screen upon the eyes mentioned in His saying:

وَإِذَا قَرَأْتَ الْقُرْآنَ جَعَلْنَا بَيْنَكَ وَبَيْنَ الَّذِينَ لَا يُؤْمِنُونَ بِالْآخِرَةِ حِجَابًا مَّسْتُورًا وَجَعَلْنَا عَلَىٰ قُلُوبِهِمْ أَكِنَّةً أَن يَفْقَهُوهُ وَفِي آذَانِهِمْ وَقْرًا

When you recite the Quran, We put between you and those who do not believe in the Hereafter a concealed partition. We have placed coverings over their hearts, lest they understand it, and deafness in their ears.

Surat Al-Isra 17:45-46

When the people who have these types of hearts are admonished to purify their worship of Allah and to follow the Messenger, they turn their backs and run away.

The inverted heart refers to the heart of the hypocrite, as Allah the Exalted said:

فَمَا لَكُمْ فِي الْمُنَافِقِينَ فِئَتَيْنِ وَاللَّهُ أَرْكَسَهُم بِمَا كَسَبُوا

What is the matter with you that you are two groups concerning the hypocrites, while Allah has made them fall back into error for what they have earned?

Surat An-Nisa 4:88

Meaning, Allah caused them to relapse and return to the falsehood in which they had been due to their evil deeds. This is the most evil of hearts and the vilest of them for it believes falsehood to be the truth and shows love and allegiance to those who follow it. It also believes the truth to be falsehood and shows hostility to those who follow it. And Allah’s help is sought.

The heart that has two urges refers to the heart that has not become established upon faith because it has not devoted itself entirely to the truth with which Allah has sent His Messenger. Rather, it contains some faith and some of its opposite. It is closer to unbelief than faith at times and at other times it is closer to faith than unbelief. This heart follows whatever is most influential at the time.

Source: Ighathatul Lahfan fi Masayid ash-Shaytan 1/7

Ibn Rajab. The Key to Paradise: being a translation of his Tahqiq Kalimatul Ikhlaas. Daar Us-Sunnah Publishers 2007.

قال ابن القيم رحمه الله الباب الأول: في انقسام القلوب إلى صحيح وسقيم وميت

لما كان القلب يوصف بالحياة وضدها انقسم بحسب ذلك إلى هذه الأحوال الثلاثة فالقلب الصحيح: هو القلب السليم الذي لا ينجو يوم القيامة إلا من أتى الله به كما قال تعالى: يوم لا ينفع مال ولا بنون إلا من أتى الله بقلب سليم والسليم هو السالم وجاء على هذا المثال لأنه للصفات كالطويل والقصير والظريف فالسليم القلب الذي قد صارت السلامة صفة ثابتة له كالعليم والقدير وأيضا فإنه ضد المريض والسقيم والعليل

وقد اختلفت عبارات الناس في معنى القلب السليم والأمر الجامع لذلك: أنه الذي قد سلم من كل شهوة تخالف أمر الله ونهيه ومن كل شبهة تعارض خبره فسلم من عبودية ما سواه وسلم من تحكيم غير رسوله فسلم في محبة الله مع تحكيمه لرسوله في خوفه ورجائه والتوكل عليه والإنابة إليه والذل له وإيثار مرضاته في كل حال والتباعد من سخطه بكل طريق وهذا هو حقيقة العبودية التي لا تصلح إلا لله وحده قالقلب السليم: هو الذي سلم من أن يكون لغير الله فيه شرك بوجه ما بل قد خلصت عبوديته لله تعالى: إرادة ومحبة وتوكلا وإنابة وإخباتا وخشية ورجاء وخلص عمله لله فإن أحب أحب في الله وإن أبغض أبغض في الله وإن أعطى أعطى لله وإن منع منع لله ولا يكفيه هذا حتى يسلم من الانقياد والتحكيم لكل من عدا رسوله صلى الله عليه وسلم فيعقد قلبه معه عقدا محكما على الائتمام والاقتداء به وحده دون كل أحد في الأقوال والأعمال من أقوال القلب وهي العقائد وأقوال اللسان وهي الخبر عما في القلب وأعمال القلب وهي الإرادة والمحبة والكراهة وتوابعها وأعمال الجوارح فيكون الحاكم عليه في ذلك كله دقعه وجله هو ما جاء به الرسول صلى الله عليه وسلم فلا يتقدم بين يديه بعقيدة ولا قول ولا عمل كما قال تعالى: يأيها الذين آمنوا لا تقدموا بين يدى الله ورسوله أي لا تقولوا حتى يقول ولا تفعلوا حتى يأمر قال بعض السلف: ما من فعلة وإن صغرت إلا ينشر لها ديوانان: لم وكيف أى لم فعلت وكيف فعلت فالأول سؤال عن علة الفعل وباعثه وداعيه: هل هو حظ عاجل من حظوظ العامل وغرض من أغراض الدنيا في محبة المدح من الناس أو خوف ذمهم أو استجلاب محبوب عاجل أو دفع مكروه عاجل أم الباعث على الفعل القيام بحق العبودية وطلب التودد والتقرب إلى الرب سبحانه وتعالى وابتغاء الوسيلة إليه

ومحل هذا السؤال: أنه هل كان عليك أن تفعل هذا الفعل لمولاك أم فعلته لحظك وهواك

والثاني: سؤال عن متابعة الرسول صلى الله عليه وسلم في ذلك التعبد أي هل كان ذلك العمل مما شرعته لك على لسان رسولي أم كان عملا لم أشرعه ولم أرضه

فالأول سؤال عن الإخلاص والثاني عن المتابعة فإن الله سبحانه لا يقبل عملا إلا بهما

فطريق التخلص من السؤال الأول: بتجريد الإخلاص وطريق التخلص من السؤال الثاني: بتحقيق المتابعة وسلامة القلب من إرادة تعارض الإخلاص وهوى يعارض الاتباع فهذا حقيقة سلامة القلب الذي ضمنت له النجاة والسعادة

فصل في القلب الميت

والقلب الثاني: ضد هذا وهو القلب الميت الذي لا حياة به فهو لا يعرف ربه ولا يعبده بأمره وما يحبه ويرضاه بل هو واقف مع شهواته ولذاته ولو كان فيها سخط ربه وغضبه فهو لا يبالي إذا فاز بشهوته وحظه رضى ربه أم سخط فهو متعبد لغير الله: حبا وخوفا ورجاء ورضا وسخطا وتعظيما وذلا إن أحب أحب لهواه وإن أبغض أبغض لهواه وإن أعطى أعطى لهواه وإن منع منع لهواه فهواه ا ثر عنده وأحب إليه من رضا مولاه فالهوى إمامه والشهوة قائده والجهل سائقه والغفلة مركبه فهو بالفكر في تحصيل أغراضه الدنيوية مغمور وبسكرة الهوى وحب العاجلة مخمور ينادى إلى الله وإلى الدار الا خرة من مكان بعيد ولا يستجيب للناصح ويتبع كل شيطان مريد الدنيا تسخطه وترضيه والهوى يصمه عما سوى الباطل ويعميه فهو في الدنيا كما قيل في ليلى:

عدو لمن عادت وسلم لأهلها… ومن قربت ليلى أحب وأقربا

فمخالطة صاحب هذا القلب سقم ومعاشرته سم ومجالسته هلاك

فصل في القلب المريض

والقلب الثالث: قلب له حياة وبه علة فله مادتان تمده هذه مرة وهذه أخرى وهو لما غلب عليه منهما ففيه من محبة الله تعالى والإيمان به والإخلاص له والتوكل عليه: ما هو مادة حياته وفيه من محبة الشهوات وإيثارها والحرص على تحصيلها والحسد والكبر والعجب وحب العلو والفساد في الأرض بالرياسة: ما هو مادة هلاكه وعطبه وهو ممتحن بين داعبيين: داع يدعوه إلى الله ورسوله والدار الآخرة وداع يدعوه إلى العاجلة وهو إنما يجيب أقربهما منه بابا وأدناهما إليه جوارا قالقلب الأول حى مخبت لين واع والثاني يابس ميت والثالث مريض فإما إلى السلامة أدنى وإما إلى العطب أدنى

وقد جمع الله سبحانه بين هذه القلوب الثلاثة في قوله: وما أرسلنا من قبلك من رسول ولا نبي إلا إذا تمنى ألقى الشيطان في أمنيته فينسخ الله ما يلقي الشيطان ثم يحكم الله آياته والله عليم حكيم ليجعل ما يلقي الشيطان فتنة للذين في قلوبهم مرض والقاسية قلوبهم وإن الظالمين لفي شقاق بعيد وليعلم الذين أوتوا العلم أنه الحق من ربك فيؤمنوا به فتخبت له قلوبهم وإن الله لهاد الذين آمنوا إلى صراط مستقيم

فجعل الله سبحانه وتعالى القلوب في هذه الا يات ثلاثة: قلبين مفتونين وقلبا ناجيا فالمفتونان: القلب الذي فيه مرض والقلب القاسي والناجي: القلب المؤمن المخبت إلى ربه وهو المطمئن إليه الخاضع له المستسلم المنقاد

وذلك: أن القلب وغيره من الأعضاء يراد منه أن يكون صحيحا سليما لا ا فة به يتأتى منه ما هيىء له وخلق لأجله وخروجه عن الاستقامة إما ليبسه وقساوته وعدم التأتي لما يراد منه كاليد الشلاء واللسان الأخرس والأنف الأخشم وذكر العنين والعين التي لا تبصر شيئا وإما بمرض وآفة فيه تمنعه من كمال هذه الأفعال ووقوعها على السداد فلذلك انقسمت القلوب إلى هذه الأقسام الثلاثة

فالقلب الصحيح السليم: ليس بينه وبين قبول الحق ومحبته وإيثاره سوى إدراكه فهو صحيح الإدراك للحق تام الانقياد والقبول له

والقلب الميت القاسي: لا يقبله ولا ينقاد له

والقلب المريض: إن غلب عليه مرضه التحق بالميت القاسي وإن غلبت عليه صحته التحق بالسليم

فما يلقيه الشيطان في الأسماع من الألفاظ وفي القلوب من الشبه والشكوك: فتنة لهذين القلبين وقوة للقلب الحي السليم لأنه يرد ذلك ويكرهه ويبغضه ويعلم أن الحق في خلافه فيخبت للحق ويطمئن وينقاد ويعلم بطلان ما ألقاه الشيطان فيزداد إيمانا بالحق ومحبة له وكفرا بالباطل وكراهة له فلا يزال القلب المفتون في مرية من إلقاء الشيطان وأما القلب الصحيح السليم فلا يضره ما يلقيه الشيطان أبدا

قال حذيفة بن اليمان رضي الله عنه: قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم تعرض الفتن على القلوب كعرض الحصير عودا عودا فأي قلب أشربها نكتت فيه نكتة سوداء وأي قلب أنكرها نكتت فيه نكتة بيضاء حتى تعود القلوب على قلبين: قلب أسود مربادزا كالكوز مجخيا لا يعرف معروفا ولا ينكر منكرا إلا ما أشرب من هواه وقلب أبيض فلا تضره فتنة ما دامت السموات والأرض فشبه عرض الفتن على القلوب شيئا فشيئا كعرض عيدان الحصير وهي طاقاتها شيئا فشيئا وقسم القلوب عند عرضها عليها إلى قسمين: قلب إذا عرضت عليه فتنة أشربها كما يشرب السفنج الماء فتنكت فيه نكتة سوداء فلا يزال يشرب كل فتنة تعرض عليه حتى يسود وينتكس وهو معنى قوله كالكوز مجخيا أي مكبوبا منكوسا فإذا اسود وانتكس عرض له من هاتين الآفتين مرضان خطران متراميان به إلى الهلاك، أحدهما: اشتباه المعروف عليه بالمنكر فلا يعرف معروفا ولا ينكر منكرا وربما استحكم عليه هذا المرض حتى يعتقد المعروف منكرا والمنكر معروفا والسنة بدعة والبدعة سنة والحق باطلا والباطل حقا الثاني: تحكيمه هواه على ما جاء به الرسول صلى الله عليه وسلم وانقياده للهوى واتباعه له

وقلب أبيض قد أشرق فيه نور الإيمان وأزهر فيه مصباحه فإذا عرضت عليه الفتنة أنكرها وردها فازداد نوره وإشراقه وقوته والفتن التي تعرض على القلوب هي أسباب مرضها وهي فتن الشهوات وفتن الشبهات فتن الغي والضلال فتن المعاصي والبدع فتن الظلم والجهل فالأولى توجب فساد القصد والإرادة والثانية توجب فساد العلم والاعتقاد

وقد قسم الصحابة رضي الله تعالى عنهم القلوب إلى أربعة كما صح عن حذيفة بن اليمان: القلوب أربعة: قلب أجرد فيه سراج يزهر فذلك قلب المؤمن وقلب أغلف فذلك قلب الكافر وقلب منكوس فذلك قلب المنافق عرف ثم أنكر وأبصر ثم عمى وقلب تمده مادتان: مادة إيمان ومادة نفاق وهو لما غلب عليه منهما

فقوله: قلب أجرد أي متجرد مما سوى الله ورسوله فقد تجرد وسلم مما سوى الحق وفيه سراج يزهر وهو مصباح الإيمان: فأشار بتجرده إلى سلامته من شبهات الباطل وشهوات الغى وبحصول السراج فيه إلى إشراقه واستنارته بنور العلم والإيمان وأشار بالقلب الأغلف إلى قلب الكافر لأنه داخل في غلافه وغشائه فلا يصل إليه نور العلم والإيمان كما قال تعالى حاكيا عن اليهود: وقالوا قلوبنا غلف وهو جمع أغلف وهو الداخل في غلافه كقلف وأقلف وهذه الغشاوة هي الأكنة التي ضربها الله على قلوبهم عقوبة له على رد الحق والتكبر عن قبوله فهي أكنة على القلوب ووقر في الأسماع وعمى في الأبصار وهي الحجاب المستور عن العيون في قوله تعالى: وإذا قرأت القرآن جعلنا بينك وبين الذين لا يؤمنون بالآخرة حجابا مستورا وجعلنا على قلوبهم أكنة أن يفقهوه وفي آذانهم وقرا فإذا ذكر لهذه القلوب تجريد التوحيد وتجريد المتابعة ولى أصحابها على أدبارهم نفورا

وأشار بالقلب المنكوس وهو المكبوب إلى قلب المنافق كما قال تعالى: فما لكم في المنافقين فئتين والله أركسهم بما كسبوا أي نكسهم وردهم في الباطل الذي كانوا فيه بسبب كسبهم وأعمالهم الباطلة وهذا شر القلوب وأخبثها فإنه يعتقد الباطل حقا ويوالي أصحابه والحق باطلا ويعادى أهله فالله المستعان

وأشار بالقلب الذي له مادتان إلى القلب الذي لم يتمكن فيه الإيمان ولم يزهر فيه سراجه حيث لم يتجرد للحق المحض الذي بعث الله به رسوله بل فيه مادة منه ومادة من خلافه فتارة يكون للكفر أقرب منه للإيمان وتارة يكون للإيمان أقرب منه للكفر والحكم للغالب وإليه يرجع

1/7 إغاثة اللهفان من مصايد الشيطان

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