Ibn Al-Qayyim on the three sources of all sins

January 29, 2016

Al-Fawa'id Ibn Al-Qayyim

By Abu Amina Elias

In the name of Allah, the Gracious, the Merciful

Ibn Al-Qayyim writes in his book Al-Fawa’id:

The people entered the Hellfire by three doors: the door of doubts which led to uncertainty in the religion of Allah, the door of lusts which led to preferring desires over obedience to Allah, and the door of anger which led to aggression against His creation.

The sources of every sin are three matters: arrogance[1] which caused Satan behave the way he did, greed[2] which caused Adam to be expelled from the garden, and envy[3] which emboldened one of the sons of Adam against his brother.

He who protects himself from these three matters will be protected from evil. Unbelief comes from arrogance, disobedience comes from greed, and transgression and injustice come from envy.

Allah in His wisdom made every inward and outward part of the son of Adam as a machine which, if he used properly, will complete him. The eye is a device for seeing, the ears a device for hearing, the nose a device for smelling, the tongue a device for speaking, the private parts a device for marriage, the hands a device for power, the legs a device for walking, the heart a device for faith and knowledge, the soul a device for love, the mind a device for reflection and contemplation of worldly and religious consequences and to prefer what is worthy of preference and to neglect what is worthy of neglect.

The people who lose the most are those who are preoccupied with themselves instead of Allah. Those who are preoccupied with other people are in even greater loss than them.

In the Sunan is the tradition of Abu Sa’eed Al-Khudri which he attributed to the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him:

إِذَا أَصْبَحَ ابْنُ آدَمَ فَإِنَّ الْأَعْضَاءَ كُلَّهَا تُكَفِّرُ اللِّسَانَ فَتَقُولُ اتَّقِ اللَّهَ فِينَا فَإِنَّمَا نَحْنُ بِكَ فَإِنْ اسْتَقَمْتَ اسْتَقَمْنَا وَإِنْ اعْوَجَجْتَ اعْوَجَجْنَا

When the son of Adam awakens in the morning, all of his body parts defer to the tongue and they say: Fear Allah concerning us, for we are only a part of you. If you are straight then we are straight, and if you are crooked then we are crooked.

Source: Sunan At-Tirmidhi 2407, Grade: Sahih

Indeed, they only submit to the tongue as it is the post of the heart, its representative, and the junction between itself and the limbs. The statement that ‘we are only part of you’ means our salvation or destruction only lies with the tongue.

Source: al-Fawāʼid 1/58

قال ابن القيم رحمه الله دخل الناس النار من ثلاثة أبواب باب شبهة اورثت شكا في دين الله وباب شهوة اورثت تقديم الهوى على طاعته ومرضاته وباب غضب أورث العدوان على خلقه

أصول الخطايا كلها ثلاثة الكبر وهو الذى أصار ابليس الي ما أصاره والحرص وهو الذى أخرج آدم من الجنة والحسد وهو الذى جرأ أحدا بني آدم علي أخيه

فمن وقى شر هذه الثلاثة فقد وقى الشر فالكفر من الكبر والمعاصى من الحرص والبغى والظلم من الحسد

جعل الله بحكمته كل جزء من أجزاء ابن آدم ظاهرة وباطنة آلة لشيء اذا استعمل فيه فهو كماله فالعين آلة للنظر والاذن آلة للسماع والأنف آلة للشم واللسان آلة للنطق والفرج للنكاح واليد للبطش والرجل للمشى والقلب للتوحيد والمعرفة والروح للمحبه والعقل آلة للتفكر والتدبر لعواقب الامور الدينية والدنيويه وايثار ما ينبغى ايثاره وأهمال ما ينبغى اهماله

أخسر الناس صفقة من اشتغل عن الله بنفسه بل أخسر منه من اشتغل عن نفسه بالناس

فى السنن من حديث أبي سعيد يرفعه إِذَا أَصْبَحَ ابْنُ آدَمَ فَإِنَّ الْأَعْضَاءَ كُلَّهَا تُكَفِّرُ اللِّسَانَ فَتَقُولُ اتَّقِ اللَّهَ فِينَا فَإِنَّمَا نَحْنُ بِكَ فَإِنْ اسْتَقَمْتَ اسْتَقَمْنَا وَإِنْ اعْوَجَجْتَ اعْوَجَجْنَا

وانما خضعت للسان لانه بريد القلب وترجمانه والواسطة بينه وبين الأعضاء وقولها انما نحن بك أي نجاتنا بك وهلاكنا بك

1/58 الفوائد

Success comes from Allah, and Allah knows best.

[1] Abdullah ibn Mas’ud reported: The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, said, “He will not enter Hellfire who has the weight of a seed of faith in his heart and he will not enter Paradise who has the weight of a seed of arrogance in his heart.”

Source: Sahih Muslim 91, Grade: Sahih

عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ قَالَ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ لَا يَدْخُلُ النَّارَ أَحَدٌ فِي قَلْبِهِ مِثْقَالُ حَبَّةِ خَرْدَلٍ مِنْ إِيمَانٍ وَلَا يَدْخُلُ الْجَنَّةَ أَحَدٌ فِي قَلْبِهِ مِثْقَالُ حَبَّةِ خَرْدَلٍ مِنْ كِبْرِيَاءَ

91 صحيح مسلم كتاب الإيمان باب تحريم الكبر وبيانه

[2] Jabir ibn Abdullah reported: The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, said, “Guard yourself from greed, for greed destroyed those before you. It caused them to shed blood and to make lawful what is unlawful.”

Source: Sahih Muslim 2578, Grade: Sahih

عَنْ جَابِرِ بْنِ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَ‏‏ وَاتَّقُوا الشُّحَّ فَإِنَّ الشُّحَّ أَهْلَكَ مَنْ كَانَ قَبْلَكُمْ حَمَلَهُمْ عَلَى أَنْ سَفَكُوا دِمَاءَهُمْ وَاسْتَحَلُّوا مَحَارِمَهُمْ

2578 صحيح مسلم كِتَاب الْبِرِّ وَالصِّلَةِ وَالْآدَابِ يا عبادي إني حرمت الظلم على نفسي وجعلته بينكم محرما فلا تظالموا

[3] Anas ibn Malik reported: The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, said, “Do not hate each other, do not envy each other, do not turn away from each other, but rather be servants of Allah as brothers.”

Source: Sahih Bukhari 5718, Grade: Muttafaqun Alayhi

عَنْ أَنَسِ بْنِ مَالِكٍ أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ قَالَ لَا تَبَاغَضُوا وَلَا تَحَاسَدُوا وَلَا تَدَابَرُوا وَكُونُوا عِبَادَ اللَّهِ إِخْوَانًا

5718 صحيح البخاري كتاب الأدب باب ما ينهى عن التحاسد والتدابر

2559 صحيح مسلم كِتَاب الْبِرِّ وَالصِّلَةِ وَالْآدَابِ بَاب تَحْرِيمِ التَّحَاسُدِ وَالتَّبَاغُضِ وَالتَّدَابُرِ