Ibn Al-Qayyim on the Prophet’s guidance for Eid

July 26, 2014

Eid Mubarak 1

By Abu Amina Elias for FaithinAllah.org

In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful

Ibn Al-Qayyim writes in his book Zaad Al-Ma’ad:

The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, would perform Eid prayers in the place of prayer at the eastern entrance of Medina where the pilgrimage caravans would camp. He never performed Eid prayer in his mosque except once due to rain, if the narration collected by Abu Dawud and Ibn Majah is authentic. His guidance was to always perform the prayers in the place of prayer.

The Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, would wear his best clothes for the Eid prayers. He had a garment that he wore for the two Eid prayers and on Friday. Sometimes he wore two green cloaks or a red cloak. We previously said that these clothes were not of plain color, as some people thought, or else this type of garment would not be called a cloak. The clothes had red stripes such as Yemeni cloaks and they were called red as a figure of speech.

It is authentically reported from the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, in which he prohibited plain red and saffron colored clothes. When he saw Abdullah ibn Amr, may Allah be pleased with them both, wearing two red garments, he ordered him to burn them. He would not have disliked wearing red this much yet wear it himself. The evidence demonstrates that wearing plain red is impermissible or at least greatly disapproved.

The Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, would eat an odd number of dates before heading to prayer on the day of Eid Al-Fitr. As for the day of Eid Al-Adha, the Prophet would not eat until he returned from the place of prayer. Then he would eat from the animal he slaughtered as his sacrifice.

The Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, would perform the ritual bath (ghusl) according to an authentic report. There are two weak reports about this practice. The first report was collected from Abdullah ibn Abbas through Jubarah ibn Mughallis and the second was reported from Al-Fakih ibn Sa’d through Yusuf ibn Khalid As-Samti. Abdullah ibn Umar, who strictly followed the Sunnah, used to perform a ritual bath on the day of Eid before heading to prayer.

The Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, would head to the prayer walking while he carried a staff. When he reached the place of prayer, he would place the staff in front of him as he led the prayer. During that time, the place of prayer was an empty space and it did not contain structures or walls. He also used a lance as a barrier (sutrah) to mark his place of prayer. He would delay the pray on the day of breaking fast and he would hasten it on the day of sacrifices. Ibn Umar, who strictly followed the Sunnah, would remain in his house until sunrise and then proceed to the place of prayer while declaring the greatness of Allah.

When the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, reached the place of prayer, he would offer the prayer without preceding it with the two calls to prayer. They did not announce that the congregational prayer is about to begin. The Sunnah does not prescribe any of these statements. Neither the Prophet nor his companions would perform any prayer before or after the Eid prayer.

The Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, performed the Eid prayer before the sermon by first praying two bowings (raka’at). He declared the greatness of Allah (takbir) seven consecutive times in the first bowing and after the first declaration, pausing briefly between them. There is no specific supplication reported from the Prophet to be said between each declaration. It was reported by Al-Khallal that Abdullah ibn Mas’ud would praise and thank Allah and send blessings upon the Prophet. Furthermore, Ibn Umar, who strictly followed the Prophet, would raise his hands every time he said the declaration.

When the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, finished his declarations, he would recited the Quran by beginning with Surah Al-Fatihah. Then he would recite Surah Qaf in the first bowing and Surah Al-Qamar in the second bowing. Sometimes he would recite Surah Al-‘Ala and Surah Al-Ghashiyah. Both were reported from him through established narrations. Nothing else was authentically reported from him in this regard.

When the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, finished reciting the Quran, he would declare the greatness of Allah and go into bowing position. After finishing the first bowing and standing from prostration, he would declare the greatness of Allah five consecutive times and then recite the Quran. Thus, in his two bowings he would first declare the greatness of Allah, then recite the Quran, and then bow. It was reported that he said declarations, recited the Quran, and then bowed in the first bowing, and in the second bowing he recited the Quran first and said the declarations afterward. However, this was not reported through an established chain of narration because the narrator Muhammad ibn Mu’awiya An-Naisaburi was accused of fabrication by several scholars as mentioned by Al-Bayhaqi.

At-Tirmidhi narrated that Kathir ibn Abdullah ibn Amr reported that Amr said that the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, said seven declarations in the first bowing before reciting the Quran and five declarations in the second bowing before reciting the Quran. At-Tirmidhi said, “I asked Al-Bukhari about this narration and he said: This is the most authentic report on this topic. I agree with it.” He also said that the report [specifying a different amount] collected from Abdullah ibn Abdur Rahman At-Taifi from Amr ibn Shu’aib is also authentic.

I say that Al-Bukhari was referring to a report in which it is stated that the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, said twelve declarations, seven in the first bowing and five in the second. He did not offer any prayer before or after it. Ahmad said, “This is also my opinion.” As for Kathir ibn Abdullah, Imam Ahmad did not include his reports in his book Al-Musnad, saying that his reports are not worthy of being recorded. Yet, At-Tirmidhi sometimes graded Kathir’s reports as authentic and other times as fair. Al-Bukhari said that this report is the most authentic on this topic. He also said that the report from Amr ibn Shu’aib is authentic, saying it is also his opinion. Allah knows best.

When the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, finished the prayer, he would stand in front of the congregation who would remain sitting in their rows. The he would deliver a sermon, advise them, and give orders and prohibitions. Afterwards, he would dispatch an expedition or give an order if he wished to do so. There was not a pulpit that he would stand on, nor was the pulpit of Medina transferred to the place of prayer. Rather, he would deliver the sermon while standing on the ground. Jabir said, “I attended the Eid prayer with the Messenger of Allah. He first performed the prayer and then delivered the sermon without announcing the two calls to prayer. Then he would stand up while leaning on Bilal and he enjoined people to be mindful of Allah and to obey Him. He advised people and reminded them, then he went to where the women were sitting and he advised them and reminded them.” This report is agreed upon according to Al-Bukhari and Muslim.

Abu Sa’eed Al-Khudri said, “The Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, would go the place of prayer on the two days of celebration. The first thing he would do is pray and then he would stand before the people who would remain sitting in their rows.” This was narrated by Muslim.

There is another narration from Abu Sa’eed who said that the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, would go to the place of prayer and lead the prayer by performing two bowings. After he ended the prayer by invoking peace, he would mount his camel and face the congregation who would be sitting in their rows and he would enjoin charity. Women would give the most charity at that time, donating their earrings, rings, and other items. Afterwards, the Prophet would mention if he wanted to dispatch an expedition or not. Then he would return home.

I always thought that there was a mistake in reporting this narration. This is because the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, would go to the prayer walking while carrying a staff. The only time he delivered the sermon while sitting on his camel was during the day of sacrifice in Mina. I found the narration in the collection of Baqi ibn Makhlad, a scholar of prophetic traditions. Baqi collected this report from Abu Bakr ibn Abi Shaiba to Abu Sa’eed Al-Khudri who said that the Prophet would go to the prayer on the day of breaking fast, lead the people in prayer, and end by invoking peace. Then he would face the congregation and order them to give in charity. Women would give the most charity.

Baqi then reported that Abu Bakr ibn Khallad narrated that Abu Sa’eed said the Prophet, peace and belssings be upon him, would go to the prayer on the day of breaking fast and the first thing he did was lead the people in a prayer of two bowings. He would face the people, who would be sitting, and order them to give charity. This is the same chain of narration used by Ibn Majah, except that Ibn majah collected it from Abu Kuraib. The original narration could have said that he would stand on his feet, to conform to Jabir’s narration that he was leaning on Bilal. However, the person who recorded Ibn Majah’s report might have incorrectly narrated that the Prophet was sitting on his camel. Allah knows best.

On might say that Al-Bukhari and Muslim reported that Abdullah ibn Abbas said, “I joined the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, and Abu Bakr, Umar, and Uthman in the prayer on the day of breaking fast. They would perform the prayer before the sermon, then deliver the sermon.” He said: The Prophet descended after the sermon, as if I am now looking at him waving to the men to remain sitting. He was accompanied by Bilal and he came crossing the rows until he reached the women, then he recited the verse:

يَا أَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ إِذَا جَاءَكَ الْمُؤْمِنَاتُ يُبَايِعْنَكَ عَلَىٰ أَن لَّا يُشْرِكْنَ بِاللَّهِ شَيْئًا

O Prophet, when the believing women come to you pledging to you that they will not associate anything with Allah.

Surah Al-Mumtahanah 60:12

Al-Bukhari and Muslim also narrated that Jabir ibn Abdullah said, “The Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, stood and began the prayer, then he delivered the sermon. When he finished the sermon, he descended to the women and preached to them.” One might say that according to these two narrations, the Prophet gave the speech while standing on a pulpit or sitting on his camel. It is possible that a pulpit was built for him from mud stones.

We answer this suggestion by first saying that there is no doubt in the authenticity of these reports. Also, there is no doubt that the pulpit was transferred from the Prophet’s mosque. The first to take the pulpit to the place of prayer was Marwan ibn Al-Hakam and he was criticized for doing so. As for the pulpit that was built in Medina, it was built by Kathir ibn As-Salt when Marwan was the governor of Medina. This incident was reported by Al-Bukhari and Muslim. It is possible that the Prophet used to stand on a high place or a bench, then he would descend to where the women were sitting to deliver a sermon to them, advise them, and remind them. Allah knows best.

The Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, would start all of his sermons with the praise of Allah. There is not a single report in which the Prophet started the sermon on Eid by declaring the greatness of Allah.

Ibn Majah recorded in the Sunan that Sa’d Al-Qaradh, who used to announce the call to prayer for the Prophet, said that the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, would say many declarations within his Eid sermons.

There is a difference of opinion on whether the two Eid sermons and the sermon at the time of invoking Allah for rain should start with a declaration of the greatness of Allah or praise of Allah. These is an opinion that the sermon at the time of drought should begin by seeking the forgiveness of Allah. Sheikh Al-Islam Ibn Taymiyyah said that beginning with praise is the correct opinion, as the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him said:

كَلُّ أَمْرٍ ذِي بَالٍ لَا يُبْدَأُ فِيهِ بِحَمْدِ اللَّهِ فَهُوَ أَجْذَمُ

Every matter that does not begin with the praise of Allah is left deficient.

Source: Sunan Ibn Majah 1894, Grade: Hasan

The Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, would start all of his sermons with the praise of Allah. He made a concession for those who attended the Eid prayer to either listen to the sermon or to depart. He also made a concession for them not to attend the Friday prayer if Eid prayer occurs on a Friday and they attended the Eid prayer.

When the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, would depart for the Eid prayer, he would leave his house using one path and return using a different path. It is said that the reason he did this was to greet the people with peace who lived on both fairways, or so that the blessings of his passing would reach both areas, or to fulfill the needs of those among them. It is said that he did so to establish the symbols of Islam in the various roads and paths. Another reason given is that he did so to frustrate the hypocrites when they witnessed the might of Islam and its people. It is said that he did so in order for the various areas to testify to his obedience to Allah. Surely, he who walks to the mosque and the place of prayer will earn this virtue: one step raises him a degree and another erases a sin until he returns home. It is also said, and this is the correct opinion, that all the reasons mentioned here are possible as well as other unknown wisdom that always accompanied his actions.

It is reported that the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, would recite these words beginning after the dawn prayer on the day of Arafat until the evening prayer on the last of the days of sacrifice:

اللَّهُ أَكْبَرُ اللَّهُ أَكْبَرُ لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا اللَّهُ وَاللَّهُ أَكْبَرُ اللَّهُ أَكْبَرُ وَلِلَّهِ الْحَمْدُ

Allahu Akbar, Allahu Akbar, La Ilaha Illa Allah, Wa Allahu Akbar, Wa Lillahi Hamd.

Allah is the greatest, Allah is the greatest, there is no God but Allah, Allah is the greatest, and for Allah is all praise.

Source: Zaad Al-Ma’ad 1/426-433

فَصْلٌ فِي هَدْيِهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ فِي الْعِيدَيْنِ

كَانَ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ يُصَلِّي الْعِيدَيْنِ فِي الْمُصَلَّى وَهُوَ الْمُصَلَّى الَّذِي عَلَى بَابِ الْمَدِينَةِ الشَّرْقِيِّ وَهُوَ الْمُصَلَّى الَّذِي يُوضَعُ فِيهِ مَحْمِلُ الْحَاجِّ وَلَمْ يُصَلِّ الْعِيدَ بِمَسْجِدِهِ إِلَّا مَرَّةً وَاحِدَةً أَصَابَهُمْ مَطَرٌ فَصَلَّى بِهِمُ الْعِيدَ فِي الْمَسْجِدِ إِنْ ثَبَتَ الْحَدِيثُ وَهُوَ فِي سُنَنِ أبي داود وَابْنِ مَاجَهْ وَهَدْيُهُ كَانَ فِعْلَهُمَا فِي الْمُصَلَّى دَائِمًا

وَكَانَ يَلْبَسُ لِلْخُرُوجِ إِلَيْهِمَا أَجْمَلَ ثِيَابِهِ فَكَانَ لَهُ حُلَّةٌ يَلْبَسُهَا لِلْعِيدَيْنِ وَالْجُمُعَةِ وَمَرَّةً كَانَ يَلْبَسُ بُرْدَيْنِ أَخْضَرَيْنِ وَمَرَّةً بُرْدًا أَحْمَرَ وَلَيْسَ هُوَ أَحْمَرُ مُصْمَتًا كَمَا يَظُنُّهُ بَعْضُ النَّاسِ فَإِنَّهُ لَوْ كَانَ كَذَلِكَ لَمْ يَكُنْ بُرْدًا وَإِنَّمَا فِيهِ خُطُوطٌ حُمْرٌ كَالْبُرُودِ الْيَمَنِيَّةِ فَسُمِّيَ أَحْمَرَ بِاعْتِبَارِ مَا فِيهِ مِنْ ذَلِكَ

وَقَدْ صَحَّ عَنْهُ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ مِنْ غَيْرِ مُعَارِضٍ النَّهْيُ عَنْ لُبْسِ الْمُعَصْفَرِ وَالْأَحْمَرِ وَأَمَرَ عَبْدَ اللَّهِ بْنَ عَمْرٍو لَمَّا رَأَى عَلَيْهِ ثَوْبَيْنِ أَحْمَرَيْنِ أَنْ يُحْرِقَهُمَا فَلَمْ يَكُنْ لِيَكْرَهَ الْأَحْمَرَ هَذِهِ الْكَرَاهَةَ الشَّدِيدَةَ ثُمَّ يَلْبَسُهُ وَالَّذِي يَقُومُ عَلَيْهِ الدَّلِيلُ تَحْرِيمُ لِبَاسِ الْأَحْمَرِ أَوْ كَرَاهِيَتُهُ كَرَاهِيَةً شَدِيدَةً

وَكَانَ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ يَأْكُلُ قَبْلَ خُرُوجِهِ فِي عِيدِ الْفِطْرِ تَمَرَاتٍ وَيَأْكُلُهُنَّ وِتْرًا وَأَمَّا فِي عِيدِ الْأَضْحَى فَكَانَ لَا يَطْعَمُ حَتَّى يَرْجِعَ مِنَ الْمُصَلَّى فَيَأْكُلُ مِنْ أُضْحِيَتِهِ

وَكَانَ يَغْتَسِلُ لِلْعِيدَيْنِ صَحَّ الْحَدِيثُ فِيهِ وَفِيهِ حَدِيثَانِ ضَعِيفَانِ حَدِيثُ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ مِنْ رِوَايَةِ جُبَارَةِ بْنِ مُغَلِّسٍ وَحَدِيثُ الفاكه بن سعد مِنْ رِوَايَةِ يوسف بن خالد السمتيوَلَكِنْ ثَبَتَ عَنِ ابْنِ عُمَرَ مَعَ شِدَّةِ اتَّبَاعِهِ لِلسُّنَّةِ أَنَّهُ كَانَ يَغْتَسِلُ يَوْمَ الْعِيدِ قَبْلَ خُرُوجِهِ

وَكَانَ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ يَخْرُجُ مَاشِيًا وَالْعَنَزَةُ تُحْمَلُ بَيْنَ يَدَيْهِ فَإِذَا وَصَلَ إِلَى الْمُصَلَّى نُصِبَتْ بَيْنَ يَدَيْهِ لِيُصَلِّيَ إِلَيْهَا فَإِنَّ الْمُصَلَّى كَانَ إِذْ ذَاكَ فَضَاءً لَمْ يَكُنْ فِيهِ بِنَاءٌ وَلَا حَائِطٌ وَكَانَتِ الْحَرْبَةُ سُتْرَتَهُوَكَانَ يُؤَخِّرُ صَلَاةَ عِيدِ الْفِطْرِ وَيُعَجِّلُ الْأَضْحَى وَكَانَ ابْنُ عُمَرَ مَعَ شِدَّةِ اتِّبَاعِهِ لِلسُّنَّةِ لَا يَخْرُجُ حَتَّى تَطْلُعَ الشَّمْسُ وَيُكَبِّرُ مِنْ بَيْتِهِ إِلَى الْمُصَلَّى

وَكَانَ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ إِذَا انْتَهَى إِلَى الْمُصَلَّى أَخَذَ فِي الصَّلَاةِ مِنْ غَيْرِ أَذَانٍ وَلَا إِقَامَةٍ وَلَا قَوْلِ الصَّلَاةُ جَامِعَةٌ وَالسُّنَّةُ أَنَّهُ لَا يُفْعَلُ شَيْءٌ مِنْ ذَلِكَ وَلَمْ يَكُنْ هُوَ وَلَا أَصْحَابُهُ يُصَلُّونَ إِذَا انْتَهَوْا إِلَى الْمُصَلَّى شَيْئًا قَبْلَ الصَّلَاةِ وَلَا بَعْدَهَا

وَكَانَ يَبْدَأُ بِالصَّلَاةِ قَبْلَ الْخُطْبَةِ فَيُصَلِّي رَكْعَتَيْنِ يُكَبِّرُ فِي الْأُولَى سَبْعَ تَكْبِيرَاتٍ مُتَوَالِيَةٍ بِتَكْبِيرَةِ الِافْتِتَاحِ يَسْكُتُ بَيْنَ كُلِّ تَكْبِيرَتَيْنِ سَكْتَةً يَسِيرَةً وَلَمْ يُحْفَظْ عَنْهُ ذِكْرٌ مُعَيَّنٌ بَيْنَ التَّكْبِيرَاتِ وَلَكِنْ ذُكِرَ عَنِ ابْنِ مَسْعُودٍ أَنَّهُ قَالَ يَحْمَدُ اللَّهَ وَيُثْنِي عَلَيْهِ وَيُصَلِّي عَلَى النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ ذَكَرَهُ الخلال وَكَانَ ابْنُ عُمَرَ مَعَ تَحَرِّيهِ لِلِاتِّبَاعِ يَرْفَعُ يَدَيْهِ مَعَ كُلِّ تَكْبِيرَةٍ

وَكَانَ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ إِذَا أَتَمَّ التَّكْبِيرَ أَخَذَ فِي الْقِرَاءَةِ فَقَرَأَ فَاتِحَةَ الْكِتَابِ ثُمَّ قَرَأَ بَعْدَهَا ق وَالْقُرْآنِ الْمَجِيدِ فِي إِحْدَى الرَّكْعَتَيْنِ وَفِي الْأُخْرَى اقْتَرَبَتِ السَّاعَةُ وَانْشَقَّ الْقَمَرُ وَرُبَّمَا قَرَأَ فِيهِمَا سَبِّحِ اسْمَ رَبِّكَ الْأَعْلَى وَ هَلْ أَتَاكَ حَدِيثُ الْغَاشِيَةِ صَحَّ عَنْهُ هَذَا وَهَذَا وَلَمْ يَصِحَّ عَنْهُ غَيْرُ ذَلِكَ

فَإِذَا فَرَغَ مِنَ الْقِرَاءَةِ كَبَّرَ وَرَكَعَ ثُمَّ إِذَا أَكْمَلَ الرَّكْعَةَ وَقَامَ مِنَ السُّجُودِ كَبَّرَ خَمْسًا مُتَوَالِيَةً فَإِذَا أَكْمَلَ التَّكْبِيرَ أَخَذَ فِي الْقِرَاءَةِ فَيَكُونُ التَّكْبِيرُ أَوَّلَ مَا يَبْدَأُ بِهِ فِي الرَّكْعَتَيْنِ وَالْقِرَاءَةُ يَلِيهَا الرُّكُوعُ وَقَدْ رُوِيَ عَنْهُ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ أَنَّهُ وَالَى بَيْنَ الْقِرَاءَتَيْنِ فَكَبَّرَ أَوَّلًا ثُمَّ قَرَأَ وَرَكَعَ فَلَمَّا قَامَ فِي الثَّانِيَةِ قَرَأَ وَجَعَلَ التَّكْبِيرَ بَعْدَ الْقِرَاءَةِ وَلَكِنْ لَمْ يَثْبُتْ هَذَا عَنْهُ فَإِنَّهُ مِنْ رِوَايَةِ محمد بن معاوية النيسابوري قَالَ البيهقي رَمَاهُ غَيْرُ وَاحِدٍ بِالْكَذِبِ

وَقَدْ رَوَى الترمذي مِنْ حَدِيثِ كثير بن عبد الله بن عمرو بن عوف عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنْ جَدِّهِ أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ كَبَّرَ فِي الْعِيدَيْنِ فِي الْأُولَى سَبْعًا قَبْلَ الْقِرَاءَةِ وَفِي الْآخِرَةِ خَمْسًا قَبْلَ الْقِرَاءَةِ قَالَ الترمذي سَأَلْتُ مُحَمَّدًا يَعْنِي الْبُخَارِيَّ عَنْ هَذَا الْحَدِيثِ قَالَ لَيْسَ فِي الْبَابِ شَيْءٌ أَصَحَّ مِنْ هَذَا وَبِهِ أَقُولُ وَقَالَ وَحَدِيثُ عبد الله بن عبد الرحمن الطائفي عَنْ عَمْرِو بْنِ شُعَيْبٍ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنْ جَدِّهِ فِي هَذَا الْبَابِ هُوَ صَحِيحٌ أَيْضًا

قُلْتُ يُرِيدُ حَدِيثَهُ أَنَّ النَّبِيَّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ كَبَّرَ فِي عِيدٍ ثِنْتَيْ عَشْرَةَ تَكْبِيرَةً سَبْعًا فِي الْأُولَى وَخَمْسًا فِي الْآخِرَةِ وَلَمْ يُصَلِّ قَبْلَهَا وَلَا بَعْدَهَا قَالَ أحمد وَأَنَا أَذْهَبُ إِلَى هَذَا قُلْتُ وكثير بن عبد الله بن عمرو هَذَا ضَرَبَ أحمد عَلَى حَدِيثِهِ فِي الْمُسْنَدِ وَقَالَ لَا يُسَاوِي حَدِيثُهُ شَيْئًا وَالتِّرْمِذِيُّ تَارَةً يُصَحِّحُ حَدِيثَهُ وَتَارَةً يُحَسِّنُهُ وَقَدْ صَرَّحَ الْبُخَارِيُّ بِأَنَّهُ أَصَحُّ شَيْءٍ فِي الْبَابِ مَعَ حُكْمِهِ بِصِحَّةِ حَدِيثِ عَمْرِو بْنِ شُعَيْبٍ وَأَخْبَرَ أَنَّهُ يَذْهَبُ إِلَيْهِ وَاللَّهُ أَعْلَمُ

وَكَانَ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ إِذَا أَكْمَلَ الصَّلَاةَ انْصَرَفَ فَقَامَ مُقَابِلَ النَّاسِ وَالنَّاسُ جُلُوسٌ عَلَى صُفُوفِهِمْ فَيَعِظُهُمْ وَيُوصِيهِمْ وَيَأْمُرُهُمْ وَيَنْهَاهُمْ وَإِنْ كَانَ يُرِيدُ أَنْ يَقْطَعَ بَعْثًا قَطَعَهُ أَوْ يَأْمُرَ بِشَيْءٍ أَمَرَ بِهِ وَلَمْ يَكُنْ هُنَالِكَ مِنْبَرٌ يَرْقَى عَلَيْهِ وَلَمْ يَكُنْ يُخْرِجُ مِنْبَرَ الْمَدِينَةِ وَإِنَّمَا كَانَ يَخْطُبُهُمْ قَائِمًا عَلَى الْأَرْضِ قَالَ جابر شَهِدْتُ مَعَ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ الصَّلَاةَ يَوْمَ الْعِيدِ فَبَدَأَ بِالصَّلَاةِ قَبْلَ الْخُطْبَةِ بِلَا أَذَانٍ وَلَا إِقَامَةٍ ثُمَّ قَامَ مُتَوَكِّئًا عَلَى بِلَالٍ فَأَمَرَ بِتَقْوَى اللَّهِ وَحَثَّ عَلَى طَاعَتِهِ وَوَعَظَ النَّاسَ وَذَكَّرَهُمْ ثُمَّ مَضَى حَتَّى أَتَى النِّسَاءَ فَوَعَظَهُنَّ وَذَكَّرَهُنَّ مُتَّفَقٌ عَلَيْهِ

وَقَالَ أَبُو سَعِيدٍ الْخُدْرِيُّ كَانَ النَّبِيُّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ يَخْرُجُ يَوْمَ الْفِطْرِ وَالْأَضْحَى إِلَى الْمُصَلَّى فَأَوَّلُ مَا يَبْدَأُ بِهِ الصَّلَاةُ ثُمَّ يَنْصَرِفُ فَيَقُومُ مُقَابِلَ النَّاسِ وَالنَّاسُ جُلُوسٌ عَلَى صُفُوفِهِمْ الْحَدِيثَ رَوَاهُ مسلم

وَذَكَرَ أَبُو سَعِيدٍ الْخُدْرِيُّ أَنَّهُ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ كَانَ يَخْرُجُ يَوْمَ الْعِيدِ فَيُصَلِّي بِالنَّاسِ رَكْعَتَيْنِ ثُمَّ يُسَلِّمُ فَيَقِفُ عَلَى رَاحِلَتِهِ مُسْتَقْبِلَ النَّاسِ وَهُمْ صُفُوفٌ جُلُوسٌ فَيَقُولُ تَصَدَّقُوا فَأَكْثَرُ مَنْ يَتَصَدَّقُ النِّسَاءُ بِالْقُرْطِ وَالْخَاتَمِ وَالشَّيْءِ فَإِنْ كَانَتْ لَهُ حَاجَةٌ يُرِيدُ أَنْ يَبْعَثَ بَعْثًا يَذْكُرُهُ لَهُمْ وَإِلَّا انْصَرَفَ

وَقَدْ كَانَ يَقَعُ لِي أَنَّ هَذَا وَهْمٌ فَإِنَّ النَّبِيَّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ إِنَّمَا كَانَ يَخْرُجُ إِلَى الْعِيدِ مَاشِيًا وَالْعَنَزَةُ بَيْنَ يَدَيْهِ وَإِنَّمَا خَطَبَ عَلَى رَاحِلَتِهِ يَوْمَ النَّحْرِ بِمَنًى إِلَى أَنْ رَأَيْتُ بَقِيَّ بْنَ مَخْلَدٍ الْحَافِظَ قَدْ ذَكَرَ هَذَا الْحَدِيثَ فِي مُسْنَدِهِ عَنْ أَبِي بَكْرِ بْنِ أَبِي شَيْبَةَ حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ نُمَيْرٍ حَدَّثَنَا داود بن قيس حَدَّثَنَا عِيَاضُ بْنُ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ سَعْدِ بْنِ أَبِي سَرْحٍ عَنْ أَبِي سَعِيدٍ الْخُدْرِيِّ قَالَ كَانَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ يَخْرُجُ يَوْمَ الْعِيدِ مِنْ يَوْمِ الْفِطْرِ فَيُصَلِّي بِالنَّاسِ تَيْنِكَ الرَّكْعَتَيْنِ ثُمَّ يُسَلِّمُ فَيَسْتَقْبِلُ النَّاسُ فَيَقُولُ تَصَدَّقُوا وَكَانَ أَكْثَرُ مَنْ يَتَصَدَّقُ النِّسَاءَ وَذَكَرَ الْحَدِيثَ

ثُمَّ قَالَ حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو بَكْرِ بْنُ خَلَّادٍ حَدَّثَنَا أبو عامر حَدَّثَنَا داود عَنْ عياض عَنْ أبي سعيد كَانَ النَّبِيُّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ يَخْرُجُ فِي يَوْمِ الْفِطْرِ فَيُصَلِّي بِالنَّاسِ فَيَبْدَأُ بِالرَّكْعَتَيْنِ ثُمَّ يَسْتَقْبِلُهُمْ وَهُمْ جُلُوسٌ فَيَقُولُ تَصَدَّقُوا فَذَكَرَ مِثْلَهُ وَهَذَا إِسْنَادُ ابْنِ مَاجَهْ إِلَّا أَنَّهُ رَوَاهُ عَنْ أبي كريب عَنْ أبي أسامة عَنْ داود وَلَعَلَّهُ ثُمَّ يَقُومُ عَلَى رِجْلَيْهِ كَمَا قَالَ جابر قَامَ مُتَوَكِّئًا عَلَى بلال فَتَصَحَّفَ عَلَى الْكَاتِبِ بِرَاحِلَتِهِ وَاللَّهُ أَعْلَمُ

فَإِنْ قِيلَ فَقَدْ أَخْرَجَا فِي الصَّحِيحَيْنِ عَنِ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ قَالَ شَهِدْتُ صَلَاةَ الْفِطْرِ مَعَ نَبِيِّ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ وأبي بكر وعمر وعثمان رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُمْ فَكُلُّهُمْ يُصَلِّيهَا قَبْلَ الْخُطْبَةِ ثُمَّ يَخْطُبُ قَالَ فَنَزَلَ نَبِيُّ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ كَأَنِّي أَنْظُرُ إِلَيْهِ حِينَ يَجْلِسُ الرِّجَالُ بِيَدِهِ ثُمَّ أَقْبَلَ يَشُقُّهُمْ حَتَّى جَاءَ إِلَى النِّسَاءِ وَمَعَهُ بِلَالٌ فَقَالَ يَاأَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ إِذَا جَاءَكَ الْمُؤْمِنَاتُ يُبَايِعْنَكَ عَلَى أَنْ لَا يُشْرِكْنَ بِاللَّهِ شَيْئًا فَتَلَا الْآيَةَ حَتَّى فَرَغَ مِنْهَا الْحَدِيثَ

وَفِي الصَّحِيحَيْنِ أَيْضًا عَنْ جابر أَنَّ النَّبِيَّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ قَامَ فَبَدَأَ بِالصَّلَاةِ ثُمَّ خَطَبَ النَّاسَ بَعْدُ فَلَمَّا فَرَغَ نَبِيُّ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ نَزَلَ فَأَتَى النِّسَاءَ فَذَكَّرَهُنَّ الْحَدِيثَ وَهُوَ يَدُلُّ عَلَى أَنَّهُ كَانَ يَخْطُبُ عَلَى مِنْبَرٍ أَوْ عَلَى رَاحِلَتِهِ وَلَعَلَّهُ كَانَ قَدْ بُنِيَ لَهُ مِنْبَرٌ مِنْ لَبِنٍ أَوْ طِينٍ أَوْ نَحْوِهِ قِيلَ لَا رَيْبَ فِي صِحَّةِ هَذَيْنِ الْحَدِيثَيْنِ وَلَا رَيْبَ أَنَّ الْمِنْبَرَ لَمْ يَكُنْ يَخْرُجُ مِنَ الْمَسْجِدِ وَأَوَّلُ مَنْ أَخْرَجَهُ مَرْوَانُ بْنُ الْحَكَمِ فَأَنْكَرَ عَلَيْهِ وَأَمَّا مِنْبَرُ اللَّبِنِ وَالطِّينِ فَأَوَّلُ مَنْ بَنَاهُ كثير بن الصلت فِي إِمَارَةِ مروان عَلَى الْمَدِينَةِ كَمَا هُوَ فِي الصِّحِيحَيْنِ فَلَعَلَّهُ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ كَانَ يَقُومُ فِي الْمُصَلَّى عَلَى مَكَانٍ مُرْتَفِعٍ أَوْ دُكَّانٍ وَهِيَ الَّتِي تُسَمَّى مِصْطَبَةً ثُمَّ يَنْحَدِرُ مِنْهُ إِلَى النِّسَاءِ فَيَقِفُ عَلَيْهِنَّ فَيَخْطُبُهُنَّ فَيَعِظُهُنَّ وَيُذَكِّرُهُنَّ وَاللُّهُ أَعْلَمُ

وَكَانَ يَفْتَتِحُ خُطَبَهُ كُلَّهَا بِالْحَمْدِ لِلَّهِ وَلَمْ يُحْفَظْ عَنْهُ فِي حَدِيثٍ وَاحِدٍ أَنَّهُ كَانَ يَفْتَتِحُ خُطْبَتَيِ الْعِيدَيْنِ بِالتَّكْبِيرِ وَإِنَّمَا رَوَى ابْنُ مَاجَهْ فِي سُنَنِهِ عَنْ سعد القرظ مُؤَذِّنِ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ أَنَّهُ كَانَ يُكْثِرُ التَّكْبِيرَ بَيْنَ أَضْعَافِ الْخُطْبَةِ وَيُكْثِرُ التَّكْبِيرَ فِي خُطْبَتَيِ الْعِيدَيْنِ وَهَذَا لَا يَدُلُّ عَلَى أَنَّهُ كَانَ يَفْتَتِحُهَا بِهِ

وَقَدِ اخْتَلَفَ النَّاسُ فِي افْتِتَاحِ خُطْبَةِ الْعِيدَيْنِ وَالِاسْتِسْقَاءِ فَقِيلَ يُفْتَتَحَانِ بِالتَّكْبِيرِ وَقِيلَ تُفْتَتَحُ خُطْبَةُ الِاسْتِسْقَاءِ بِالِاسْتِغْفَارِ وَقِيلَ يُفْتَتَحَانِ بِالْحَمْدِ قَالَ شَيْخُ الْإِسْلَامِ ابْنُ تَيْمِيَّةَ وَهُوَ الصُّوَابُ لِأَنَّ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ قَالَ كَلُّ أَمْرٍ ذِي بَالٍ لَا يُبْدَأُ فِيهِ بِحَمْدِ اللَّهِ فَهُوَ أَجْذَمُ وَكَانَ يَفْتَتِحُ خُطَبَهُ كُلَّهَا بِالْحَمْدِ لِلَّهِ

وَكَانَ يَفْتَتِحُ خُطَبَهُ كُلَّهَا بِالْحَمْدِ لِلَّهِ وَرَخَّصَ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ لِمَنْ شَهِدَ الْعِيدَ أَنْ يَجْلِسَ لِلْخُطْبَةِ وَأَنْ يَذْهَبَ وَرَخَّصَ لَهُمْ إِذَا وَقَعَ الْعِيدُ يَوْمَ الْجُمُعَةِ أَنْ يَجْتَزِئُوا بِصَلَاةِ الْعِيدِ عَنْ حُضُورِ الْجُمُعَةِ

وَكَانَ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ يُخَالِفُ الطَّرِيقَ يَوْمَ الْعِيدِ فَيَذْهَبُ فِي طَرِيقٍ وَيَرْجِعُ فِي آخَرَ فَقِيلَ لِيُسَلِّمَ عَلَى أَهْلِ الطَّرِيقَيْنِ وَقِيلَ لِيَنَالَ بَرَكَتَهُ الْفَرِيقَانِ وَقِيلَ لِيَقْضِيَ حَاجَةَ مَنْ لَهُ حَاجَةٌ مِنْهُمَا وَقِيلَ لِيُظْهِرَ شَعَائِرَ الْإِسْلَامِ فِي سَائِرِ الْفِجَاجِ وَالطُّرُقِ وَقِيلَ لِيَغِيظَ الْمُنَافِقِينَ بِرُؤْيَتِهِمْ عِزَّةَ الْإِسْلَامِ وَأَهْلَهُ وَقِيَامَ شَعَائِرِهِ وَقِيلَ لِتَكْثُرَ شَهَادَةُ الْبِقَاعِ فَإِنَّ الذَّاهِبَ إِلَى الْمَسْجِدِ وَالْمُصَلَّى إِحْدَى خُطْوَتَيْهِ تَرْفَعُ دَرَجَةً وَالْأُخْرَى تَحُطُّ خَطِيئَةً حَتَّى يَرْجِعَ إِلَى مَنْزِلِهِ وَقِيلَ وَهُوَ الْأَصَحُّ إِنَّهُ لِذَلِكَ كُلِّهِ وَلِغَيْرِهِ مِنَ الْحِكَمِ الَّتِي لَا يَخْلُو فِعْلُهُ عَنْهَا

وَرُوِيَ عَنْهُ أَنَّهُ كَانَ يُكَبِّرُ مِنْ صَلَاةِ الْفَجْرِ يَوْمَ عَرَفَةَ إِلَى الْعَصْرِ مِنْ آخِرِ أَيَّامِ التَّشْرِيقِ اللَّهُ أَكْبَرُ اللَّهُ أَكْبَرُ لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا اللَّهُ وَاللَّهُ أَكْبَرُ اللَّهُ أَكْبَرُ وَلِلَّهِ الْحَمْدُ

1/426-433 ابن القيم زاد المعاد في هدي خير العباد فصول في هديه صلى الله عليه وسلم في العبادات فصل في هديه صلى الله عليه وسلم في العيدين

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