An-Nawawi on fasting and charity in Ramadan

July 13, 2013

A gate in Paradise for those who fast

By Abu Amina Elias

In the name of Allah, the Gracious, the Merciful

An-Nawawi records in his book Riyāḍ al-Ṣāliḥīn:

Allah the Exalted said:

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا كُتِبَ عَلَيْكُمُ الصِّيَامُ كَمَا كُتِبَ عَلَى الَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِكُمْ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَتَّقُونَ أَيَّامًا مَّعْدُودَاتٍ ۚ فَمَن كَانَ مِنكُم مَّرِيضًا أَوْ عَلَىٰ سَفَرٍ فَعِدَّةٌ مِّنْ أَيَّامٍ أُخَرَ ۚ وَعَلَى الَّذِينَ يُطِيقُونَهُ فِدْيَةٌ طَعَامُ مِسْكِينٍ ۖ فَمَن تَطَوَّعَ خَيْرًا فَهُوَ خَيْرٌ لَّهُ ۚ وَأَن تَصُومُوا خَيْرٌ لَّكُمْ ۖ إِن كُنتُمْ تَعْلَمُونَ

شَهْرُ رَمَضَانَ الَّذِي أُنزِلَ فِيهِ الْقُرْآنُ هُدًى لِّلنَّاسِ وَبَيِّنَاتٍ مِّنَ الْهُدَىٰ وَالْفُرْقَانِ ۚ فَمَن شَهِدَ مِنكُمُ الشَّهْرَ فَلْيَصُمْهُ ۖ وَمَن كَانَ مَرِيضًا أَوْ عَلَىٰ سَفَرٍ فَعِدَّةٌ مِّنْ أَيَّامٍ أُخَرَ ۗ يُرِيدُ اللَّهُ بِكُمُ الْيُسْرَ وَلَا يُرِيدُ بِكُمُ الْعُسْرَ وَلِتُكْمِلُوا الْعِدَّةَ وَلِتُكَبِّرُوا اللَّهَ عَلَىٰ مَا هَدَاكُمْ وَلَعَلَّكُمْ تَشْكُرُونَ

O you who believe, decreed upon you is fasting as it was decreed upon those before you that you may become righteous. It is for a limited number of days, so whoever among you is ill or on a journey, then an equal number of days is to be made up. Upon those who are in hardship, a substitute of feeding a poor person. Whoever volunteers more it is better for him, but to fast is best for you if you only knew.

The month of Ramadan is that in which was revealed the Quran, a guidance for people and clear proofs of guidance and distinction. Whoever sights the month, let him fast it. Whoever is ill or on a journey, then an equal number of other days. Allah intends for you ease and does not intend for you hardship and He intends for you to complete the period and to glorify Allah for that to which he has guided you, that perhaps you will be grateful.

Surat al-Baqarah 2:183-185

Abu Huraira reported: The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, said:

قَالَ اللَّهُ كُلُّ عَمَلِ ابْنِ آدَمَ لَهُ إِلاَّ الصِّيَامَ فَإِنَّهُ لِي وَأَنَا أَجْزِي بِهِ

Allah Almighty said: All of the deeds of the children of Adam are for them, except fasting which is for me and I will reward it.

The Prophet said further:

وَالصِّيَامُ جُنَّةٌ وَإِذَا كَانَ يَوْمُ صَوْمِ أَحَدِكُمْ فَلاَ يَرْفُثْ وَلاَ يَصْخَبْ فَإِنْ سَابَّهُ أَحَدٌ أَوْ قَاتَلَهُ فَلْيَقُلْ إِنِّي امْرُؤٌ صَائِمٌ‏.‏ وَالَّذِي نَفْسُ مُحَمَّدٍ بِيَدِهِ لَخُلُوفُ فَمِ الصَّائِمِ أَطْيَبُ عِنْدَ اللَّهِ مِنْ رِيحِ الْمِسْكِ، لِلصَّائِمِ فَرْحَتَانِ يَفْرَحُهُمَا إِذَا أَفْطَرَ فَرِحَ وَإِذَا لَقِيَ رَبَّهُ فَرِحَ بِصَوْمِهِ

Fasting is a shield. If one of you is fasting, he should avoid intimate relations with his wife and arguments. If somebody should fight or argue with him, he should say: I am fasting. By him in whose hand is my soul, the unpleasant smell coming from the mouth of a fasting person is better to Allah than the smell of musk. There are two pleasures for the fasting person, one at the time of breaking his fast and the other when he meets his Lord, for then he will be pleased by his fasting.

Source: Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī 1805, Grade: Muttafaqun Alayhi

In another narration, the Prophet said:

كُلُّ عَمَلِ ابْنِ آدَمَ يُضَاعَفُ الْحَسَنَةُ عَشْرُ أَمْثَالِهَا إِلَى سَبْعمِائَة ضِعْفٍ قَالَ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ إِلَّا الصَّوْمَ فَإِنَّهُ لِي وَأَنَا أَجْزِي

Every deed of the son of Adam is multiplied from ten to seven hundred times. Allah the Exalted says: Except for fasting, as it is done for my sake and I will reward it.

And in another narration, the Prophet said:

يَتْرُكُ طَعَامَهُ وَشَرَابَهُ وَشَهْوَتَهُ مِنْ أَجْلِي الصِّيَامُ لِي وَأَنَا أَجْزِي بِهِ وَالْحَسَنَةُ بِعَشْرِ أَمْثَالِهَا

Allah says: He has left his food, drink, and desires for my sake. The fast is for me, so I will reward him for it and the reward of good deeds is multiplied by ten like it.

Source: Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim 1151, Grade: Sahih

Abu Huraira reported: The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, saying:

مَنْ أَنْفَقَ زَوْجَيْنِ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ نُودِيَ مِنْ أَبْوَابِ الْجَنَّةِ يَا عَبْدَ اللَّهِ هَذَا خَيْرٌ فَمَنْ كَانَ مِنْ أَهْلِ الصَّلَاةِ دُعِيَ مِنْ بَابِ الصَّلَاةِ وَمَنْ كَانَ مِنْ أَهْلِ الْجِهَادِ دُعِيَ مِنْ بَابِ الْجِهَادِ وَمَنْ كَانَ مِنْ أَهْلِ الصِّيَامِ دُعِيَ مِنْ بَابِ الرَّيَّانِ وَمَنْ كَانَ مِنْ أَهْلِ الصَّدَقَةِ دُعِيَ مِنْ بَابِ الصَّدَقَةِ

Anyone who spends a pair of something in the cause of Allah will be called from all the gates of Paradise: O servant of Allah, this is good! The people of prayer will be called from the gate of prayer, the people of jihad will be called from the gate of jihad, the people of fasting will be called from the gate of satisfaction (al-Rayyān), and the people of charity will be called from the gate of charity.

Abu Bakr said, “One who is called from all those gates will need nothing. Will anyone be called from all those gates, O Messenger of Allah?” The Prophet said:

نَعَمْ وَأَرْجُو أَنْ تَكُونَ مِنْهُمْ

Yes, and I hope you will be among them, O Abu Bakr.

Source: Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī 3466, Grade: Muttafaqun Alayhi

Sahl ibn Sa’eed reported: The Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, said:

إِنَّ فِي الْجَنَّةِ بَابًا يُقَالُ لَهُ الرَّيَّانُ يَدْخُلُ مِنْهُ الصَّائِمُونَ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ لَا يَدْخُلُ مِنْهُ أَحَدٌ غَيْرُهُمْ يُقَالُ أَيْنَ الصَّائِمُونَ فَيَقُومُونَ لَا يَدْخُلُ مِنْهُ أَحَدٌ غَيْرُهُمْ فَإِذَا دَخَلُوا أُغْلِقَ فَلَمْ يَدْخُلْ مِنْهُ أَحَدٌ

Verily, there is a gate in Paradise called satisfaction (al-Rayyān) through which only those who fasted will enter on the Day of Resurrection. No one else will enter it along with them. It will be said: Where are those who fasted that they may enter? When the last of them enter, it will be closed and no one else will go through it.

Source: Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī 1797, Grade: Muttafaqun Alayhi

Abu Sa’eed Al-Khudri reported: The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, said:

مَنْ صَامَ يَوْمًا فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ بَعَّدَ اللَّهُ وَجْهَهُ عَنْ النَّارِ سَبْعِينَ خَرِيفًا

Whoever fasts a day in the way of Allah, then Allah will move his face away from the Hellfire by a distance of seventy years.

Source: Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī 2685, Grade: Muttafaqun Alayhi

Abu Huraira reported: The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, said:

مَنْ صَامَ رَمَضَانَ إِيمَانًا وَاحْتِسَابًا غُفِرَ لَهُ مَا تَقَدَّمَ مِنْ ذَنْبِهِ وَمَنْ قَامَ لَيْلَةَ الْقَدْرِ إِيمَانًا وَاحْتِسَابًا غُفِرَ لَهُ مَا تَقَدَّمَ مِنْ ذَنْبِهِ

Whoever fasts the month of Ramadan due to faith and seeking reward, then Allah will forgive all of his previous sins. Whoever stands in prayer during the Night of Decree due to faith and seeking reward, then Allah will forgive all of his previous sins.

Source: Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī 1802, Grade: Muttafaqun Alayhi

In another narration, the Prophet said:

مَنْ قَامَ رَمَضَانَ إِيمَانًا وَاحْتِسَابًا غُفِرَ لَهُ مَا تَقَدَّمَ مِنْ ذَنْبِهِ

Whoever stands in the prayer during Ramadan due to faith and seeking reward, then all of his previous sins will be forgiven.

Source: Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī 1905, Grade: Muttafaqun Alayhi

Abu Huraira reported: The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, said:

‏إِذَا دَخَلَ شَهْرُ رَمَضَانَ فُتِّحَتْ أَبْوَابُ السَّمَاءِ، وَغُلِّقَتْ أَبْوَابُ جَهَنَّمَ، وَسُلْسِلَتِ الشَّيَاطِين‏

When the month of Ramadan begins, the gates of the heaven are opened and the gates of Hellfire are closed and the devils are chained.

Source: Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī 1800, Grade: Muttafaqun Alayhi

Ibn Umar reported: The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, said:

لَا تَصُومُوا حَتَّى تَرَوْا الْهِلَالَ وَلَا تُفْطِرُوا حَتَّى تَرَوْهُ فَإِنْ أُغْمِيَ عَلَيْكُمْ فَاقْدِرُوا لَهُ

 

Do not fast the month of Ramadan until you see the crescent moon, and do not break your fast until you see it. If the sky is cloudy for you, then calculate it.

In another narration, the Prophet said:

فَإِنْ غُمَّ عَلَيْكُمْ فَأَكْمِلُوا الْعِدَّةَ ثَلَاثِينَ

If the sky is cloudy for you, then complete the term as thirty days.

Source: Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī 1807, Grade: Muttafaqun Alayhi

Ibn Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, said:

كَانَ النَّبِيُّ صلى الله عليه وسلم أَجْوَدَ النَّاسِ بِالْخَيْرِ وَكَانَ أَجْوَدُ مَا يَكُونُ فِي رَمَضَانَ حِينَ يَلْقَاهُ جِبْرِيلُ وَكَانَ جِبْرِيلُ عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَمُ يَلْقَاهُ كُلَّ لَيْلَةٍ فِي رَمَضَانَ حَتَّى يَنْسَلِخَ، يَعْرِضُ عَلَيْهِ النَّبِيُّ صلى الله عليه وسلم الْقُرْآنَ فَإِذَا لَقِيَهُ جِبْرِيلُ عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَمُ كَانَ أَجْوَدَ بِالْخَيْرِ مِنَ الرِّيحِ الْمُرْسَلَةِ

The Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, was the most generous of the people and he was even more generous during the month of Ramadan when Gabriel visited him. Gabriel, upon him be peace, would meet with him every night of Ramadan until the end of the month and the Prophet would recite the Quran to Gabriel. When Gabriel met him, he would be more generous than a swift wind bringing rain.

Source: Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī 1803, Grade: Muttafaqun Alayhi

Aisha, may Allah be pleased with her, said:

كَانَ النَّبِيُّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ إِذَا دَخَلَ الْعَشْرُ شَدَّ مِئْزَرَهُ وَأَحْيَا لَيْلَهُ وَأَيْقَظَ أَهْلَهُ

When the last ten days of Ramadan arrived, the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, would tighten his belt, spend the night in worship, and awaken his family.

Source: Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī 1920, Grade: Muttafaqun Alayhi

In another narration, Aisha said:

يَجْتَهِدُ فِي الْعَشْرِ الْأَوَاخِرِ مَا لَا يَجْتَهِدُ فِي غَيْرِهِ

The Prophet would would exert himself in worship during the last ten nights of Ramadan more so than any other time.

Source:  Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim 1175, Grade: Sahih

An-Nawawi said:

قَالَ أَصْحَابُنَا وَالْجُودُ وَالْأَفْضَالُ مُسْتَحَبٌّ فِي شَهْرِ رَمَضَانَ وَفِي الْعَشْرِ الْأَوَاخِرِ أَفْضَلُ اقْتِدَاءً بِرَسُولِ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ وَبِالسَّلَفِ وَلِأَنَّهُ شَهْرٌ شَرِيفٌ فَالْحَسَنَةُ فِيهِ أَفْضَلُ مِنْ غَيْرِهِ

Our scholars said that being generous and performing favors are highly recommended during Ramadan, specifically during the last ten nights. By doing so, we emulate the example of the Prophet as well as our predecessors. This month is honored and good deeds performed in this month are more blessed than they are at any other time.

Source: al-Majmū’ Sharḥ al-Muhadhdhab 6/424

Success comes from Allah, and Allah knows best.